中华人民共和国物权法

发布时间:2014-12-15阅读次数:4739

中华人民共和国物权法

Real Right Law of the People’s Republic of China

中华人民共和国主席令第62号

Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China No. 62

《中华人民共和国物权法》已由中华人民共和国第十届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于2007年3月16日通过,现予公布,自2007年10月1日起施行。 中华人民共和国主席 胡锦涛 二○○七年三月十六日

The Real Right Law of the People’s Republic of China has been adopted at the 5th session of the Tenth National People’s Congress on March 16, 2007. It is hereby promulgated and shall go into effect as of October 1, 2007. President of the People’s Republic of China Hu Jintao March 16, 2007

目 录

Contents

第一编 总则

Part I General Rules

第一章 基本原则

Chapter I Basic Principles

第二章 物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭

Chapter II Creation, Alternation, Alienation and Termination of Real Right

第一节 不动产登记

Section 1 Reality Registration

第二节 动产交付

Section 2 Chattel Delivery

第三节 其他规定

Section 3 Other Rules

第三章 物权的保护

Chapter III Protection of Real Right

第二编 所有权

Part II Ownership

第四章 一般规定

Chapter IV General Rules

第五章 国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权

Chapter V State Ownership, Collective Ownership and Private Ownership

第六章 业主的建筑物区分所有权

Chapter VI Owners’ Partitioned Ownership of Building Areas

第七章 相邻关系

Chapter VII Neighboring Relationship

第八章 共有

Chapter VIII Common Ownership

第九章 所有权取得的特别规定

Chapter IX Special Rules on Acquiring Ownership

第三编 用益物权

Part III Usufructuary Rights

第十章 一般规定

Chapter X General Rules

第十一章 土地承包经营权

Chapter XI Right to the Contracted Management of Land

第十二章 建设用地使用权

Chapter XII Right to Use Construction Land

第十三章 宅基地使用权

Chapter XIII Right to Use House Sites

第十四章 地役权

Chapter XIV Easement

第四编 担保物权

Part IV Real Rights for Security

第十五章 一般规定

Chapter XV General Rules

第十六章 抵押权

Chapter XVI Mortgage Right

第一节 一般抵押权

Section 1 General Mortgage Right

第二节 最高额抵押权

Section 2 Mortgage Right at Maximum Amount

第十七章 质权

Chapter XVII Pledge Right

第一节 动产质权

Section 1 Chattel Pledge

第二节 权利质权

Section 2 Right Pledge

第十八章 留置权

Chapter XVIII Lien

第五编 占有

Part V Possession

第十九章 占有

Chapter XIX Possession

附则

Supplementary Rules

第一编 总则

Part I General Rules

第一章 基本原则

Chapter I Basic Principles

第一条 为了维护国家基本经济制度,维护社会主义市场经济秩序,明确物的归属,发挥物的效用,保护权利人的物权,根据宪法,制定本法。

Article 1 In accordance with the Constitution Law, the present Law is enacted with a view to maintaining the basic economic system of the state, protecting the socialist market economic order, clearly defining the attribution of the res, bringing into play the utilities of the res and safeguarding the real right of the right holder.

第二条 因物的归属和利用而产生的民事关系,适用本法。

Article 2 The civil relationships incurred from the attribution and utilization of the res shall be governed by the present Law.

本法所称物,包括不动产和动产。法律规定权利作为物权客体的,依照其规定。

The term “res” as mentioned in the present Law means realties and chattels. Where it is prescribed in any provision that certain right shall be taken as an object of real right, such provision shall be applicable.

本法所称物权,是指权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权和担保物权。

The term “real right” as mentioned in the present Law means the exclusive right of direct control over a specific res enjoyed by the holder in accordance with law, including ownership, usufractuary right and real rights for security.

第三条 国家在社会主义初级阶段,坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度。

Article 3 In the primary phase of socialism, the state adheres to the basic economic system with the public ownership playing a dominant role and diverse forms of ownership developing side by side.

国家巩固和发展公有制经济,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展。

The public economy shall be consolidated and developed by the state, and the development of the nonpublic economy shall be encouraged, supported and guided.

国家实行社会主义市场经济,保障一切市场主体的平等法律地位和发展权利。

The socialist market economy system shall be practiced by the state as well as the equal legal status and development rights of all market subjects shall be protected.

第四条 国家、集体、私人的物权和其他权利人的物权受法律保护,任何单位和个人不得侵犯。

Article 4 The real right of the state, collective, individual or any other right holder shall be protected by law, and may not be damaged by any entity or individual.

第五条 物权的种类和内容,由法律规定。

Article 5 The varieties and contents of real rights shall be prescribed by law.

第六条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,应当依照法律规定登记。动产物权的设立和转让,应当依照法律规定交付。

Article 6 The creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a realty shall be subject to registration in accordance with law. The creation or alienation of the real right of a chattel shall be delivered in accordance with law.

第七条 物权的取得和行使,应当遵守法律,尊重社会公德,不得损害公共利益和他人合法权益。

Article 7 One shall, when acquiring or exercising a real right, comply with the law, respect social morals and may not infringe upon the public interests or the lawful rights and interests of any other person.

第八条 其他相关法律对物权另有特别规定的,依照其规定。

Article 8 In case there exists any other special provision in respect of real right in any other law, such special provision shall prevail.

第二章 物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭

Chapter II Creation, Alteration, Alienation and Termination of Real Right

第一节 不动产登记

Section 1 Reality Registration

第九条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,经依法登记,发生效力;未经登记,不发生效力,但法律另有规定的除外。

Article 9 Until it is registered in accordance with law, the creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a realty shall come into effect; unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, it shall have no effect if it is not registered in accordance with law.

依法属于国家所有的自然资源,所有权可以不登记。

As regards the ownership of the natural resources owned by the state in accordance with law, the registration is not required.

第十条 不动产登记,由不动产所在地的登记机构办理。

Article 10 The registration of a realty shall be handled by the registration organ at the locality of the realty.

国家对不动产实行统一登记制度。统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法,由法律、行政法规规定。

A uniform registration system over realties shall be practiced by the state. The scope, organ and measures of uniform registration shall be specified by the related laws and administrative regulations.

第十一条 当事人申请登记,应当根据不同登记事项提供权属证明和不动产界址、面积等必要材料。

Article 11 In light of the different registration items, an applicant shall, when applying for the registration of a realty, provide the ownership certificate of the realty and such necessary materials as the [] and area of the realty.

第十二条 登记机构应当履行下列职责:

Article 12 A registration organ shall perform the duties as follows:

(一) 查验申请人提供的权属证明和其他必要材料;

(1) to examine the ownership certificate and other necessary materials as provided by the applicant;

(二) 就有关登记事项询问申请人;

(2) to inquire the applicant about the registration items concerned;

(三) 如实、及时登记有关事项;

(3) to register the related items in accordance with the facts and in a timely manner; and

(四) 法律、行政法规规定的其他职责。

(4) other duties as provided for in any law or administrative regulation.

申请登记的不动产的有关情况需要进一步证明的,登记机构可以要求申请人补充材料,必要时可以实地查看。

In case the related situation of the realty under application for registration needs further proving, the registration organ may request the applicant to provide supplementary materials and conduct on-the-spot inspection where necessary.

第十三条 登记机构不得有下列行为:

Article 13 No registration organ may commit any of the behaviors as follows:

(一) 要求对不动产进行评估;

(1) to ask for an evaluation of a realty;

(二) 以年检等名义进行重复登记;

(2) to repeatedly register registration in the name of annual inspection; or

(三) 超出登记职责范围的其他行为。

(3) other behaviors conducted beyond its scope of registration duties.

第十四条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,依照法律规定应当登记的,自记载于不动产登记簿时发生效力。

Article 14 As regards the creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a realty, it shall go into effect since the date when it is recorded in the realty register in case the registration thereof is required by law.

第十五条 当事人之间订立有关设立、变更、转让和消灭不动产物权的合同,除法律另有规定或者合同另有约定外,自合同成立时生效;未办理物权登记的,不影响合同效力。

Article 15 As regards a contract entered into by the related parties concerned on the creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a realty, it shall go into effect upon the conclusion of the contract, unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law; and the validity of the contract is not affected, whether the real right has been registered or not.

第十六条 不动产登记簿是物权归属和内容的根据。不动产登记簿由登记机构管理。

Article 16 The realty register shall be the basis for deciding the ownership and contents of a realty and shall be under the management of the registration organ.

第十七条 不动产权属证书是权利人享有该不动产物权的证明。不动产权属证书记载的事项,应当与不动产登记簿一致;记载不一致的,除有证据证明不动产登记簿确有错误外,以不动产登记簿为准。

Article 17 The realty ownership certificate shall be the evidence for the holder’s ownership of a realty. The items recorded in the realty ownership certificate shall accord with those recorded in the realty register; unless it is proved that there is anything wrong in the realty register, the one recorded therein shall prevail in the case of any inconsistence.

第十八条 权利人、利害关系人可以申请查询、复制登记资料,登记机构应当提供。

Article 18 Any right holder or interested party may file an application for consulting or copying the registration materials, and the registration organ may not reject.

第十九条 权利人、利害关系人认为不动产登记簿记载的事项错误的,可以申请更正登记。不动产登记簿记载的权利人书面同意更正或者有证据证明登记确有错误的,登记机构应当予以更正。

Article 19 In case any right holder or interested party holds that there is anything wrong in any item recorded in the realty register, it/he may apply for a correction of the registration. The registration organ shall revise the registration accordingly, in case the holder recorded in the realty register agrees to revise the registration in written form or there is evidence to prove that the registration is wrong.

不动产登记簿记载的权利人不同意更正的,利害关系人可以申请异议登记。登记机构予以异议登记的,申请人在异议登记之日起十五日内不起诉,异议登记失效。异议登记不当,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以向申请人请求损害赔偿。

The interested party may apply for dissidence registration, in case the holder recorded in the realty register does not agree to the alteration. Where the registration organ grants the dissidence registration but the applicant fails to lodge an action within 15 days as of the date of dissidence registration, the dissidence registration shall lose its effect. In case the dissidence registration is improper and bring into damages to the right holder, the holder may require the applicant to compensate for damages.

第二十条 当事人签订买卖房屋或者其他不动产物权的协议,为保障将来实现物权,按照约定可以向登记机构申请预告登记。预告登记后,未经预告登记的权利人同意,处分该不动产的,不发生物权效力。

Article 20 In case the related parties entered into a purchase agreement on a premise or the real right of any other realty, they may apply for advance notice registration to the registration organ so as to ensure the realization of the real right in the future. Without the consent of the holder in the advance notice registration, any disposal of the realty, after the advance notice registration, may not produce effect of real right.

预告登记后,债权消灭或者自能够进行不动产登记之日起三个月内未申请登记的,预告登记失效。

In case the obligee’s right is terminated after the advance notice registration is made, or the application for the registration of the realty is not filed within 3 months as of the date when it can be registered, the advance notice registration shall lose its effect.

第二十一条 当事人提供虚假材料申请登记,给他人造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 21 In case any related party provides false materials for applying for registration and causes damages to any other person, it/he shall assume the liability for compensation.

因登记错误,给他人造成损害的,登记机构应当承担赔偿责任。登记机构赔偿后,可以向造成登记错误的人追偿。

In case any registration organ causes damages to any other person by virtue of any mistake in registration, it shall assume the liability for compensation. The registration organ may, after making the compensation, recover the amount from the person who causes the registration mistake.

第二十二条 不动产登记费按件收取,不得按照不动产的面积、体积或者价款的比例收取。具体收费标准由国务院有关部门会同价格主管部门规定。

Article 22 Realty registration fees shall be charged on each piece, and may not be charged on the basis of the size, volume or certain proportion of the realty’s value. The concrete charging rates shall be formulated by the related departments in the State Council in collaboration with the competent pricing department.

第二节 动产交付

Section 2 Chattel Delivery

第二十三条 动产物权的设立和转让,自交付时发生效力,但法律另有规定的除外。

Article 23 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the creation or alienation of the real right of a chattel shall come into effect upon delivery.

第二十四条 船舶、航空器和机动车等物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 24 The creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of any vessel, aircraft or motor vehicle and so on may not challenge any bona fide third party if it is not registered.

第二十五条 动产物权设立和转让前,权利人已经依法占有该动产的,物权自法律行为生效时发生效力。

Article 25 In case the right holder has legally possessed the chattel prior to the establishment or alienation of a chattel’s real right, the real right shall come into effect upon the effectiveness of the legal act.

第二十六条 动产物权设立和转让前,第三人依法占有该动产的,负有交付义务的人可以通过转让请求第三人返还原物的权利代替交付。

Article 26 In case a third party has legally possessed the chattel prior to the establishment or alienation of a chattel’s real right, the person assuming the obligation of delivery may, instead of delivery, alien the right to request the third party to return the original object.

第二十七条 动产物权转让时,双方又约定由出让人继续占有该动产的,物权自该约定生效时发生效力。

Article 27 In case both parties agree to let the alienator continuously possess the chattel when the real right of a chattel is alienated, the real right shall go into effect upon the effectiveness of the agreement.

第三节 其他规定

Section 3 Other Rules

第二十八条 因人民法院、仲裁委员会的法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等,导致物权设立、变更、转让或者消灭的,自法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等生效时发生效力。

Article 28 In case the creation, alteration, alienation or termination of a real right is resulted from a legal document of the people’s court or arbitration committee or a requisition decision of the people’s government, etc, the real right shall come into effect upon the effectiveness of the legal document or the requisition decision of the people’s government.

第二十九条 因继承或者受遗赠取得物权的,自继承或者受遗赠开始时发生效力。

Article 29 In case real right is acquired through inheritance or bequest, it shall go into effect as of the beginning time of the inheritance or bequest.

第三十条 因合法建造、拆除房屋等事实行为设立或者消灭物权的,自事实行为成就时发生效力。

Article 30 In case a real right is created or terminated as a result of such factual behaviors as the legal construction or premise demolition, it shall come into effect upon the accomplishment of the factual behavior.

第三十一条 依照本法第二十八条至第三十条规定享有不动产物权的,处分该物权时,依照法律规定需要办理登记的,未经登记,不发生物权效力。

Article 31 As regards a real right of realty enjoyed according to the provisions of Articles 28 through 30 of the present Law, any disposal thereof may not produce effect of real right until it is registered as required by law.

第三章 物权的保护

Chapter III Protection of Real Right

第三十二条 物权受到侵害的,权利人可以通过和解、调解、仲裁、诉讼等途径解决。

Article 32 Where a real right is damaged, the right holder may settle the problem by means of conciliation, mediation or arbitration, etc.

第三十三条 因物权的归属、内容发生争议的,利害关系人可以请求确认权利。

Article 33 Where any dispute over the ownership or content of real right arises, the interested parties may require the confirmation of the right.

第三十四条 无权占有不动产或者动产的,权利人可以请求返还原物。

Article 34 Where a realty or chattel is under an unauthorized possession, the right holder may require the returning of the original object.

第三十五条 妨害物权或者可能妨害物权的,权利人可以请求排除妨害或者消除危险。

Article 35 In case a real right is under obstruction or may be obstructed, the right holder may require the removing of the impediment or the termination of the danger.

第三十六条 造成不动产或者动产毁损的,权利人可以请求修理、重作、更换或者恢复原状。

Article 36 In case a realty or chattel is damaged, the right holder may require the repairing, remaking, changing or the restoration of the original state.

第三十七条 侵害物权,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以请求损害赔偿,也可以请求承担其他民事责任。

Article 37 In case the infringement upon a real right causes losses to the right holder, the right holder may require the compensation for the losses or the assuming of any other civil liability.

第三十八条 本章规定的物权保护方式,可以单独适用,也可以根据权利被侵害的情形合并适用。

Article 38 The ways for protecting real right as prescribed in the present Law may apply either independently or jointly in light of the specific situation of an injury of real right.

侵害物权,除承担民事责任外,违反行政管理规定的,依法承担行政责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

In addition to assuming civil liabilities, any entity or individual infringing upon a real right shall assume the administrative liabilities where it/he violates any provision on administrative regulation; in case any crime is established, it/he shall assume the criminal liabilities.

第二编 所有权

Part II Ownership

第四章 一般规定

Chapter IV General Rules

第三十九条 所有权人对自己的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 39 The owner of a realty or chattel is entitled to possess, utilize, seek profits from and dispose of the realty or chattel in accordance with law.

第四十条 所有权人有权在自己的不动产或者动产上设立用益物权和担保物权。用益物权人、担保物权人行使权利,不得损害所有权人的权益。

Article 40 The owner of a realty or chattel is entitled to establish a usufructuary right or real right for security over the realty or chattel. The holder of usufructuary right or the holder of real right for security may, when exercising the right, not injure the owner ‘s rights and interests.

第四十一条 法律规定专属于国家所有的不动产和动产,任何单位和个人不能取得所有权。

Article 41 As regards a realty or chattel that is exclusively owned by the state as prescribed by law, its ownership may not be acquired by any entity or individual.

第四十二条 为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征收集体所有的土地和单位、个人的房屋及其他不动产。

Article 42 In order to meet the demands of public interests, it is allowed to requisition lands owned collectively, premises owned by entities and individuals or other realties according to the statutory power limit and procedures.

征收集体所有的土地,应当依法足额支付土地补偿费、安置补助费、地上附着物和青苗的补偿费等费用,安排被征地农民的社会保障费用,保障被征地农民的生活,维护被征地农民的合法权益。

When requisitioning land owned collectively, it is required to, in accordance with law and in full amount, pay land compensation fees, placement subsidies, compensations for the above-ground fixtures of the lands and seedlings and other fees, arrange for social security fees for the farmers with land requisitioned, guarantee their livelihood and protect their lawful rights and interests.

征收单位、个人的房屋及其他不动产,应当依法给予拆迁补偿,维护被征收人的合法权益;征收个人住宅的,还应当保障被征收人的居住条件。

When requisitioning the premises owned by entities and individuals or other realties, it is required to compensate for demolishment and re[] in accordance with law and protect the lawful rights and interests of the owners of the requisitioned realties; when requisitioning the individuals’ residential houses, it is required to guarantee the housing conditions of the owners of the requisitioned houses.

任何单位和个人不得贪污、挪用、私分、截留、拖欠征收补偿费等费用。

The compensation fees for requisition and other fees may not be embezzled, misappropriated, privately shared, detained or delayed in the payment of by any entity or individual.

第四十三条 国家对耕地实行特殊保护,严格限制农用地转为建设用地,控制建设用地总量。不得违反法律规定的权限和程序征收集体所有的土地。

Article 43 Special protections are provided by the state for farm lands, the conversion of farm lands into construction lands is strictly restricted and the aggregate quantity of construction lands is under control. No one may requisition any land owned collectively with violation of the statutory power limit and procedures.

第四十四条 因抢险、救灾等紧急需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征用单位、个人的不动产或者动产。被征用的不动产或者动产使用后,应当返还被征用人。单位、个人的不动产或者动产被征用或者征用后毁损、灭失的,应当给予补偿。

Article 44 For meeting needs of emergent dangers or disasters, it is allowed for one to use the realties or chattels owned by entities and individuals according to the statutory power limit and procedures. Such realties or chattels shall, after the emergent use, be returned to the owners. In case any realty or chattel owned by any entity or individual is used or damaged or lost after being used, corresponding compensation shall be made.

第五章 国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权

Chapter V State Ownership, Collective Ownership and Private Ownership

第四十五条 法律规定属于国家所有的财产,属于国家所有即全民所有。

Article 45 As regards the properties that shall be owned by the state as provided for by law, they shall be in the ownership of the state, that is, owned by all the people.

国有财产由国务院代表国家行使所有权;法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

The State Council shall exercise the ownership of state-owned properties on behalf of the state; in case there is any otherwise provision in any law, such provision shall prevail.

第四十六条 矿藏、水流、海域属于国家所有。

Article 46 Mineral deposits, waters and sea areas shall be in the ownership of the state.

第四十七条 城市的土地,属于国家所有。法律规定属于国家所有的农村和城市郊区的土地,属于国家所有。

Article 47 Urban lands shall be in the ownership of the state. As regards lands in the rural areas and suburban areas that shall be owned by the state as prescribed by law, they shall be in the ownership of the state.

第四十八条 森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,属于国家所有,但法律规定属于集体所有的除外。

Article 48 Such natural resources as forests, mountains, grasslands, waste lands and tidal flats shall be in the ownership of the state, except for those that shall be in the ownership of collective as provided for by law.

第四十九条 法律规定属于国家所有的野生动植物资源,属于国家所有。

Article 49 As regards the wildlife resources that shall be owned by the state as provisioned by law, they shall be in the ownership of the state.

第五十条 无线电频谱资源属于国家所有。

Article 50 Radio frequency spectrum resources shall be in the ownership of the state.

第五十一条 法律规定属于国家所有的文物,属于国家所有。

Article 51 As regards the cultural relics that shall be owned by the state as provisioned by law, they shall be in the ownership of the state.

第五十二条 国防资产属于国家所有。

Article 52 National defense assets shall be in the ownership of the state.

铁路、公路、电力设施、电信设施和油气管道等基础设施,依照法律规定为国家所有的,属于国家所有。

As regards such infrastructures as railways, highways, electric power facilities, telecommunication facilities, and petrol and gas pipelines that shall be owned by the state as provisioned by law, they shall be in the ownership of the state.

第五十三条 国家机关对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定处分的权利。

Article 53 State organs have the power, in accordance with the laws and the relevant provisions of the State Council, to possess, utilize and dispose of any realty or chattel directly controlled by them.

第五十四条 国家举办的事业单位对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定收益、处分的权利。

Article 54 The public institutions held by the state have the power to possess, utilize, as well as, according to the laws and the relevant provisions of the State Council, seek profits from and dispose of any realty or chattel directly controlled by them.

第五十五条 国家出资的企业,由国务院、地方人民政府依照法律、行政法规规定分别代表国家履行出资人职责,享有出资人权益。

Article 55 As regards the enterprises set up with the funds invested in by the state, the State Council and the local people’s governments shall perform and enjoy the contributor’s duties as well as rights and interests on behalf of the state in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

第五十六条 国家所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何单位和个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留、破坏。

Article 56 The state-owned properties shall be protected by law, and no entity or individual may encroach, plunder, privately distribute, hold back or damage them.

第五十七条 履行国有财产管理、监督职责的机构及其工作人员,应当依法加强对国有财产的管理、监督,促进国有财产保值增值,防止国有财产损失;滥用职权,玩忽职守,造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。

Article 57 The institutions and working personnel thereof in charge of performing the duties of managing and supervising state-owned assets shall, according to law, strengthen the management and supervision of state-owned assets so as to promote the value maintenance and appreciation prevent the losses thereof; in case any entity or individual causes any loss of state-owned assets by misusing authority or neglecting duty, it/he shall assume legal liabilities in accordance with law.

违反国有财产管理规定,在企业改制、合并分立、关联交易等过程中,低价转让、合谋私分、擅自担保或者以其他方式造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。

In case any entity or individual, in the process of enterprise restructuring, merger, division or affiliated transactions, causes losses of state-owned assets by way of transferring at a low price, conspiring to distribute them secretly, providing guarantee with them without authorization or any other way with violation of the provisions on the management of state-owned assets, it/he shall assume legal liabilities in accordance with law.

第五十八条 集体所有的不动产和动产包括:

Article 58 The collectively-owned realties and chattels shall contain:

(一) 法律规定属于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂;

(1) Lands, forests, mountains, grasslands, wastelands and tidal flats that shall be in the ownership of collective as provided for by law;

(二) 集体所有的建筑物、生产设施、农田水利设施;

(2) Buildings, production facilities, farmland, and water conservancy facilities that are in the ownership of collective;

(三) 集体所有的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育等设施;

(3) Facilities for education, science, culture, sanitation and sports, etc that are in the ownership of collective;

(四) 集体所有的其他不动产和动产。

(4) Other realties and chattels that are in the ownership of collective.

第五十九条 农民集体所有的不动产和动产,属于本集体成员集体所有。

Article 59 The realties and chattels that are in the ownership of a farmers’ collective shall be collectively owned by all the members of this collective.

下列事项应当依照法定程序经本集体成员决定:

The following issues shall be determined by the members of the collective according to the statutory procedures:

(一) 土地承包方案以及将土地发包给本集体以外的单位或者个人承包;

(1) land contracting plan and whether to contract out a land to an entity or individual not included in the collective;

(二) 个别土地承包经营权人之间承包地的调整;

(2) adjustment of the contracted lands among the right holders of the contracted management of land;

(三) 土地补偿费等费用的使用、分配办法;

(3) methods for using and distributing such fees as land compensation fees;

(四) 集体出资的企业的所有权变动等事项;

(4) the alteration of ownership or any other related issue of an enterprise set up with the funds invested in by the collective; and

(五) 法律规定的其他事项。

(5) other issues provided for by any law.

第六十条 对于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等,依照下列规定行使所有权:

Article 60 As regards any collectively-owned land, forest, mountain, grassland, wasteland or tidal flat, the ownership thereof shall be exercised according to the provisions as follows:

(一) 属于村农民集体所有的,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会代表集体行使所有权;

(1) In case it is owned by a farmers’ collective of a village, a collective economic organization or the villagers’ committee of the village shall exercise the ownership on behalf of the collective;

(二) 分别属于村内两个以上农民集体所有的,由村内各该集体经济组织或者村民小组代表集体行使所有权;

(2) In case it is owned by two farmers’ collectives or more, all the collective economic organizations or villagers’ groups of the village shall exercise the ownership on behalf of the collective; and

(三) 属于乡镇农民集体所有的,由乡镇集体经济组织代表集体行使所有权。

(3) In case it is owned by a farmers’ collective of a town, a collective economic organization of the town shall exercise the ownership on behalf of the collective.

第六十一条 城镇集体所有的不动产和动产,依照法律、行政法规的规定由本集体享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 61 As regards any realty or chattel owned by an urban collective, this urban collective has the rights to possess, use, seek profits from and dispose of it according to the related laws and administrative regulations.

第六十二条 集体经济组织或者村民委员会、村民小组应当依照法律、行政法规以及章程、村规民约向本集体成员公布集体财产的状况。

Article 62 The collective economic organization, villager’s committee or villagers’ group shall, in accordance with the relevant laws, administrative regulations, articles of association and village regulations and villagers’ pledges, publicize the situation of the properties owned by a collective to the members of the collective.

第六十三条 集体所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何单位和个人侵占、哄抢、私分、破坏。

Article 63 Collectively-owned properties shall be protected by law, and any entity or individual may not encroach, plunder, privately distribute, hold back or destroy them.

集体经济组织、村民委员会或者其负责人作出的决定侵害集体成员合法权益的,受侵害的集体成员可以请求人民法院予以撤销。

Where the legitimate rights and interests of any member of the collective are infringed upon by any decision made by a collective economic organization, villagers’ committee or the principle thereof, such member may require the people’s court to cancel the decision.

第六十四条 私人对其合法的收入、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、原材料等不动产和动产享有所有权。

Article 64 An individual has the right to own his legal income, premise, household goods, production instruments, raw materials as well as other realties and chattels.

第六十五条 私人合法的储蓄、投资及其收益受法律保护。

Article 65 The legal savings, investments and the proceeds therefrom of an individual shall be protected by law.

国家依照法律规定保护私人的继承权及其他合法权益。

An individual’s right of inheritance as well as other legal rights and interests shall be protected by the state in accordance with law.

第六十六条 私人的合法财产受法律保护,禁止任何单位和个人侵占、哄抢、破坏。

Article 66 An individual’s legal properties shall be protected by law, any entity or individual may not encroach, plunder or destroy them.

第六十七条 国家、集体和私人依法可以出资设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他企业。国家、集体和私人所有的不动产或者动产,投到企业的,由出资人按照约定或者出资比例享有资产收益、重大决策以及选择经营管理者等权利并履行义务。

Article 67 The state, any collective or individual may invest to set up a limited liability company, a company limited by shares or any other form of enterprise. In case the state, a collective or an individual invest the realties or chattels it owns in an enterprise, the contributor shall, in accordance with the agreement or on the basis of his proportion of investment, enjoy rights such as obtaining asset returns, making important decisions and selecting operators and managers and perform their duties.

第六十八条 企业法人对其不动产和动产依照法律、行政法规以及章程享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 68 In accordance with the laws, administrative regulations and its articles of association, An enterprise legal person is entitled to possess, utilize, seek profits from and dispose of any realty or chattel it owns.

企业法人以外的法人,对其不动产和动产的权利,适用有关法律、行政法规以及章程的规定。

As regards the rights over the realties and chattels owned by a legal person other than an enterprise legal person, the provisions of the related laws, administrative regulations and its articles of associations shall apply.

第六十九条 社会团体依法所有的不动产和动产,受法律保护。

Article 69 The realties and chattels owned by social organizations in accordance with law shall be protected by law.

第六章 业主的建筑物区分所有权

Chapter VI Owners’ Partitioned Ownership of Building Areas

第七十条 业主对建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房等专有部分享有所有权,对专有部分以外的共有部分享有共有和共同管理的权利。

Article 70 As regards such exclusive parts within the buildings as the residential houses or the houses used for business purposes, an owner shall enjoy the ownership thereof, while as regards the common parts other than the exclusive parts, the owner shall have common ownership and the common management right thereof.

第七十一条 业主对其建筑物专有部分享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。业主行使权利不得危及建筑物的安全,不得损害其他业主的合法权益。

Article 71 An owner is entitled to possess utilize, seek profits from and dispose of the exclusive parts of the building. Any owner may not endanger the safety of the building or infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of any other owner when exercising his or its rights.

第七十二条 业主对建筑物专有部分以外的共有部分,享有权利,承担义务;不得以放弃权利不履行义务。

Article 72 An owner enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations over the common parts other than the exclusive parts of the building, and may not reject performing the obligations under the pretext of abandoning rights.

业主转让建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房,其对共有部分享有的共有和共同管理的权利一并转让。

In case an owner alienates his residential house or the house used for business purposes within the building, the common ownership and the common management right enjoyed by him/her over the common parts shall be alienated at the same time.

第七十三条 建筑区划内的道路,属于业主共有,但属于城镇公共道路的除外。建筑区划内的绿地,属于业主共有,但属于城镇公共绿地或者明示属于个人的除外。建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。

Article 73 The roads within the building zone, except for the public roads of cities and towns, shall be commonly owned by the owners. The green lands within the building area, except for the public green lands of cities and towns or those which are definitely ascribed to individuals, shall be commonly owned by all the owners. The other public places, common facilities and houses used for realty services within the building zone shall be commonly owned by all the owners.

第七十四条 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库应当首先满足业主的需要。

Article 74 The parking places and garages within the building area planned for parking cars shall be used to meet the needs of the owners above all else.

建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库的归属,由当事人通过出售、附赠或者出租等方式约定。

The ownership of the parking places and garages shall be agreed upon by the related parties in the manners of selling, complementary using or leasing, etc.

占用业主共有的道路或者其他场地用于停放汽车的车位,属于业主共有。

The parking places, which occupy the roads or other fields commonly owned by all owners, shall be in the common ownership of all the owners.

第七十五条 业主可以设立业主大会,选举业主委员会。

Article 75 The owners may set up an owners’ assembly and vote for an owners’ committee.

地方人民政府有关部门应当对设立业主大会和选举业主委员会给予指导和协助。

For the establishment of the owners’ assembly and the vote of the owners’ committee, the related departments under the local people’s governments shall provide guidance and assistance.

第七十六条 下列事项由业主共同决定:

Article 76 The following matters shall be commonly determined by all owners:

(一) 制定和修改业主大会议事规则;

(1) to formulate and revise the rules of procedure for the owners’ assembly;

(二) 制定和修改建筑物及其附属设施的管理规约;

(2) to formulate and revise the stipulations on managing the building and affiliated facilities thereof;

(三) 选举业主委员会或者更换业主委员会成员;

(3) to vote for the owners’ committee or alter the members thereof t;

(四) 选聘和解聘物业服务企业或者其他管理人;

(4) to hire or fire the realty service enterprise or any other manager;

(五) 筹集和使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;

(5) to raise or use the funds for maintaining the building and affiliated facilities thereof;

(六) 改建、重建建筑物及其附属设施;

(6) to rebuild the building or any of its affiliated facilities;

(七) 有关共有和共同管理权利的其他重大事项。

(7) other important matters on the common ownership and the common management right.

决定前款第五项和第六项规定的事项,应当经专有部分占建筑物总面积三分之二以上的业主且占总人数三分之二以上的业主同意。决定前款其他事项,应当经专有部分占建筑物总面积过半数的业主且占总人数过半数的业主同意。

For making a decision on matters prescribed in Item (5) or (6) of the preceding paragraph, the consent of the 2/3 or more of the total owners with exclusive parts accounting for 2/3 or more of the total area of the building shall be obtained. For making a decision on any other issue prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the consent of half of the total owners with exclusive parts accounting for half of the total area of the building shall be obtained.

第七十七条 业主不得违反法律、法规以及管理规约,将住宅改变为经营性用房。业主将住宅改变为经营性用房的,除遵守法律、法规以及管理规约外,应当经有利害关系的业主同意。

Article 77 Any owner may not alter a residential house into a house used for business purposes with violation of any law, regulation or management stipulation. An owner shall, when changing a residential house into a house used for business purposes, obtain the consent of the interested owners, in addition to complying with the laws, regulations and management stipulations.

第七十八条 业主大会或者业主委员会的决定,对业主具有约束力。

Article 78 Decisions made by the owners’ assembly or the owners’ committee are binding to each owner.

业主大会或者业主委员会作出的决定侵害业主合法权益的,受侵害的业主可以请求人民法院予以撤销。

In case the legitimate rights and interests of any owner has been injured by any decision made by the owners’ assembly or the owners’ committee, the injured owner may require the people’s court to cancel the decision.

第七十九条 建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金,属于业主共有。经业主共同决定,可以用于电梯、水箱等共有部分的维修。维修资金的筹集、使用情况应当公布。

Article 79 The funds for maintaining a building and affiliated facilities thereof shall be commonly owned by the owners of the building. The funds may, upon the codetermination of the owners, be used for maintaining such common parts as elevators and water tanks. The circumstance about the raise and use of the maintenance funds shall be released to the owners.

第八十条 建筑物及其附属设施的费用分摊、收益分配等事项,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照业主专有部分占建筑物总面积的比例确定。

Article 80 As regards such matters as the expenses al[] and the proceeds distribution of a building or any of its affiliated facilities, in case there exists any stipulation for these, such stipulation shall apply; in the case of no stipulation or unclear stipulation, these matters shall be determined in accordance with the proportion of each owner’s exclusive parts to the total area of the building.

第八十一条 业主可以自行管理建筑物及其附属设施,也可以委托物业服务企业或者其他管理人管理。

Article 81 The owners of a building may manage the building and affiliated facilities thereof by themselves or they may entrust a realty service enterprise or any other manager to conduct the management.

对建设单位聘请的物业服务企业或者其他管理人,业主有权依法更换。

As regards the realty service enterprise or any other manager hired by the construction entity, the owners are entitled to alter it in accordance with law.

第八十二条 物业服务企业或者其他管理人根据业主的委托管理建筑区划内的建筑物及其附属设施,并接受业主的监督。

Article 82 The realty service enterprise or any other manager shall, upon the strength of the owners’ entrustment, manage the building and affiliated facilities thereof within the building area and accept the owners’ supervision.

第八十三条 业主应当遵守法律、法规以及管理规约。

Article 83 The owners shall comply with the laws, regulations and management stipulations.

业主大会和业主委员会,对任意弃置垃圾、排放污染物或者噪声、违反规定饲养动物、违章搭建、侵占通道、拒付物业费等损害他人合法权益的行为,有权依照法律、法规以及管理规约,要求行为人停止侵害、消除危险、排除妨害、赔偿损失。业主对侵害自己合法权益的行为,可以依法向人民法院提起诉讼。

As regards any act infringing upon the lawful rights and interests of other persons, such as discarding wastes at will, discharging atmospheric pollutants and noise, breeding animals with violation of the related regulations, illegally building shelters, occupying passages or rejecting paying realty management fees, etc, the owners’ assembly and the owners’ committee have the right, in accordance with the relevant laws, regulations and management stipulations, to request the actor to stop the infringing act, terminate the danger, remove the impediments and make compensation for the losses. Where any owner’s legitimate rights and interests are infringed upon, he/she may lodge an action to the people’s court in accordance with law.

第七章 相邻关系

Chapter VII Neighboring Relationship

第八十四条 不动产的相邻权利人应当按照有利生产、方便生活、团结互助、公平合理的原则,正确处理相邻关系。

Article 84 A neighboring right holder of a realty shall, in accordance with the principles of facilitating production and livelihood, solidarity and mutual aid, as well as fairness and equity, handle the neighboring relationship in a correct manner.

第八十五条 法律、法规对处理相邻关系有规定的,依照其规定;法律、法规没有规定的,可以按照当地习惯。

Article 85 In case there exists any legal provision on the disposal of neighboring relationship, such provision shall apply; in the case of no such provision,, the neighboring relationship shall be disposed of in light of the local customs.

第八十六条 不动产权利人应当为相邻权利人用水、排水提供必要的便利。

Article 86 The holder of a realty shall provide necessary convenience for the neighboring right holders in terms of the use of water and drainage.

对自然流水的利用,应当在不动产的相邻权利人之间合理分配。对自然流水的排放,应当尊重自然流向。

As regards the utilization of natural running water, the neighboring right holders of a realty shall rationally distribute it. The natural current direction shall be respected when draining natural running water.

第八十七条 不动产权利人对相邻权利人因通行等必须利用其土地的,应当提供必要的便利。

Article 87 Necessary conveniences shall be provided by the right holder of a realty where a neighboring right holder has to use his land by virtue of passage or for any other reason.

第八十八条 不动产权利人因建造、修缮建筑物以及铺设电线、电缆、水管、暖气和燃气管线等必须利用相邻土地、建筑物的,该土地、建筑物的权利人应当提供必要的便利。

Article 88 In case the right holder of a realty has to use a neighboring land or building by virtue of the construction or repairing of a building, or the laying of wires, cables, water pipes, heating pipelines or fuel gas pipelines, etc, necessary convenience shall be provided by the right holder of such land or building.

第八十九条 建造建筑物,不得违反国家有关工程建设标准,妨碍相邻建筑物的通风、采光和日照。

Article 89 When constructing a building, no entity or individual may block the ventilation, lighting or sunshine of any neighboring building with violation of the relevant engineering construction standards of the state.

第九十条 不动产权利人不得违反国家规定弃置固体废物,排放大气污染物、水污染物、噪声、光、电磁波辐射等有害物质。

Article 90 No holder of realty may discard solid wastes or discharge such harmful substances as atmospheric pollutants, water pollutants, noise, light and magnetic radiation with violation of the related provisions of the state.

第九十一条 不动产权利人挖掘土地、建造建筑物、铺设管线以及安装设备等,不得危及相邻不动产的安全。

Article 91 The right holder of the realty may not, when excavating a land, constructing a building, laying a pipeline or installing an equipment, endanger the safety of any neighboring realty.

第九十二条 不动产权利人因用水、排水、通行、铺设管线等利用相邻不动产的,应当尽量避免对相邻的不动产权利人造成损害;造成损害的,应当给予赔偿。

Article 92 Where the right holder of a realty has to use a neighboring realty by virtue of using water, drainage, passage or laying pipelines, etc, he shall make more efforts to avoid causing any damage to the right holder of the neighboring realty; He shall make corresponding compensations in case any damage is caused.

第八章 共有

Chapter VIII Common Ownership

第九十三条 不动产或者动产可以由两个以上单位、个人共有。共有包括按份共有和共同共有。

Article 93 A realty or chattel may be commonly owned by two or more entities or individuals. Common ownership contains several co-ownership and joint ownership.

第九十四条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产按照其份额享有所有权。

Article 94 As regards a commonly owned realty or chattel, a several co-owner shall, on the basis of his proportion, enjoy the ownership of the realty or chattel.

第九十五条 共同共有人对共有的不动产或者动产共同享有所有权。

Article 95 As regards a commonly owned realty or chattel, a joint owner shall, on a common basis, enjoy the ownership of the realty or chattel.

第九十六条 共有人按照约定管理共有的不动产或者动产;没有约定或者约定不明确的,各共有人都有管理的权利和义务。

Article 96 The co-owners shall manage the commonly owned realty or chattel in accordance with stipulation; in the case of no or unclear stipulation,, all co-owners have the right and obligation of management.

第九十七条 处分共有的不动产或者动产以及对共有的不动产或者动产作重大修缮的,应当经占份额三分之二以上的按份共有人或者全体共同共有人同意,但共有人之间另有约定的除外。

Article 97 As regards the disposal or heavy repair of a commonly owned realty or chattel, unless it is stipulated otherwise by the co-owners, the consent of the several co-owners holding 2/3 shares or all joint owners shall be obtained.

第九十八条 对共有物的管理费用以及其他负担,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人按照其份额负担,共同共有人共同负担。

Article 98 As regards the management expenses or any other liabilities of a commonly owned res, in case there exists any stipulation on these, such stipulation shall apply; in the case of no or unclear stipulation, the expenses shall be assumed by the several co-owners in accordance with their respective shares or commonly assumed by all joint owners.

第九十九条 共有人约定不得分割共有的不动产或者动产,以维持共有关系的,应当按照约定,但共有人有重大理由需要分割的,可以请求分割;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人可以随时请求分割,共同共有人在共有的基础丧失或者有重大理由需要分割时可以请求分割。因分割对其他共有人造成损害的,应当给予赔偿。

Article 99 Where the co-owners of a commonly owned realty or chattel has stipulated that it is not allowed to partition the realty or chattel so as to maintain the relationship of common ownership, such stipulation shall apply; but where any co-owner has certain significant reasons for partitioning the realty or chattel, he may request the partition; in the case of no or unclear stipulation, a several co-owner may request the partition at any time, and a joint owner may request the partition where the basis for the common ownership disappears or he has certain significant reasons. In case any damage is caused by the partition causes to any other person, the corresponding compensation shall be made.

第一百条 共有人可以协商确定分割方式。达不成协议,共有的不动产或者动产可以分割并且不会因分割减损价值的,应当对实物予以分割;难以分割或者因分割会减损价值的,应当对折价或者拍卖、变卖取得的价款予以分割。

Article 100 The co-owners of a commonly owned realty or chattel may decide on through negotiation the way of partition. The real object shall be partitioned in case no agreement is achieved and the realty or chattel may be partitioned without impacting its value,;, the partition shall be executed by distributing the purchase price obtained from converting its value into money, the auction or selling off the realty or chattel in case it is difficult to partition it or its value would be affected because of the partition.

共有人分割所得的不动产或者动产有瑕疵的,其他共有人应当分担损失。

Where the realty or chattel, which is obtained from the partition of a commonly owned realty or chattel by a co-owner, has any flaw, the other co-owners shall assume the losses together.

第一百零一条 按份共有人可以转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额。其他共有人在同等条件下享有优先购买的权利。

Article 101 A several co-owner may alienate his share of the commonly owned realty or chattel. And the other several co-owners have the preemptive right for purchase on an equal footing.

第一百零二条 因共有的不动产或者动产产生的债权债务,在对外关系上,共有人享有连带债权、承担连带债务,但法律另有规定或者第三人知道共有人不具有连带债权债务关系的除外;在共有人内部关系上,除共有人另有约定外,按份共有人按照份额享有债权、承担债务,共同共有人共同享有债权、承担债务。偿还债务超过自己应当承担份额的按份共有人,有权向其他共有人追偿。

Article 102 As regards an obligee’s right or a debt generated from a commonly owned realty or chattel, unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law or the third party is aware of the fact that the co-owner does not have the relationship of joint and several creditor’s right or debt, a co-owner shall enjoy joint and several creditor’s right or undertake joint and several debt in terms of external relationship. In terms of the internal relationship among the co-owners, unless it is otherwise stipulated by the co-owners, a co-owner shall enjoy the creditor’s right or undertake the debt on the basis of his own share, while joint owners shall enjoy the creditor’s right or undertake the debt on a common basis. In case any several co-owner overpays his share of the debt, he/she has the right to recover the overpaid amount from the other co-owners.

第一百零三条 共有人对共有的不动产或者动产没有约定为按份共有或者共同共有,或者约定不明确的,除共有人具有家庭关系等外,视为按份共有。

Article 103 In case the co-owners does not stipulate whether the commonly owned realty or chattel is under several co-ownership or joint ownership, or if the stipulation is unclear, unless there is a family relationship among the co-owners, it shall be considered as a several co-ownership.

第一百零四条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产享有的份额,没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照出资额确定;不能确定出资额的,视为等额享有。

Article 104 A several co-owner’s share of a commonly owned realty or chattel shall be decided on according to his contribution amount in the case of no or unclear stipulation; each several co-owner shall enjoy an equal share where it is impossible to determine the contribution amount.

第一百零五条 两个以上单位、个人共同享有用益物权、担保物权的,参照本章规定。

Article 105 In case two or more entities or individuals commonly own the usufractuary right or real right for security of a realty or chattel, the provisions in this Chapter shall be applicable by reference.

第九章 所有权取得的特别规定

Chapter IX Special Provisions on Acquiring Ownership

第一百零六条 无处分权人将不动产或者动产转让给受让人的,所有权人有权追回;除法律另有规定外,符合下列情形的,受让人取得该不动产或者动产的所有权:

Article 106 In case a person unauthorized to dispose a realty or chattel alienates the realty or chattel to an assignee, the owner is entitled to recover the realty or chattel. The assignee shall obtain the ownership of the realty or chattel if meeting all of the following conditions, unless it is otherwise prescribed by law:

(一) 受让人受让该不动产或者动产时是善意的;

(1) to accept the realty or chattel in good faith;

(二) 以合理的价格转让;

(2) to purchase the realty or chattel at a reasonable price; and

(三) 转让的不动产或者动产依照法律规定应当登记的已经登记,不需要登记的已经交付给受让人。

(3) in case registration is required by law, the alienated realty or chattel shall have been registered, while in case registration is not required, the delivery thereof shall have been accomplished.

受让人依照前款规定取得不动产或者动产的所有权的,原所有权人有权向无处分权人请求赔偿损失。

In case, according to the preceding paragraph, an assignee obtains the ownership of a realty or chattel, the original owner may require the person unauthorized to dispose of the realty or chattel to compensate for his losses.

当事人善意取得其他物权的,参照前两款规定。

In case a related party obtains any other form of real right in good faith, the preceding two paragraphs shall apply by reference.

第一百零七条 所有权人或者其他权利人有权追回遗失物。该遗失物通过转让被他人占有的,权利人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿,或者自知道或者应当知道受让人之日起二年内向受让人请求返还原物,但受让人通过拍卖或者向具有经营资格的经营者购得该遗失物的,权利人请求返还原物时应当支付受让人所付的费用。权利人向受让人支付所付费用后,有权向无处分权人追偿。

Article 107 The owner or any other holder has the right to recover a lost property. In case the lost property is possessed by any other person through alienation, the owner has the right to require the person unauthorized to dispose of the property to compensate for damages, or, ask the assignee to return the original property within 2 years as of the date when he knows who is the assignee. But in case the assignee purchases the lost property through auction or from a qualified operator, the holder shall, when requiring the returning of the original property, pay the assignee the amount that the assignee has paid for purchasing the property. After paying the amount, the owner has the right to recover the amount from the person unauthorized to dispose of the property.

第一百零八条 善意受让人取得动产后,该动产上的原有权利消灭,但善意受让人在受让时知道或者应当知道该权利的除外。

Article 108 After a bona fide assignee obtains a realty, the original rights on the realty shall be terminated, unless the bona fide assignee has already been or ought to be aware of the right when the transfer is made.

第一百零九条 拾得遗失物,应当返还权利人。拾得人应当及时通知权利人领取,或者送交公安等有关部门。

Article 109 A lost-and-found object shall be returned to the right holder. The person finding such object shall inform the right holder to claim the object or hand it over to such related departments as the public security department in time.

第一百一十条 有关部门收到遗失物,知道权利人的,应当及时通知其领取;不知道的,应当及时发布招领公告。

Article 110 After receiving a lost-and-found object, the related department shall notify the right holder to claim the object in a timely manner in case it knows who is the right holder; it shall publish an announcement on the claiming of the lost property in a timely manner in case it does not know.

第一百一十一条 拾得人在遗失物送交有关部门前,有关部门在遗失物被领取前,应当妥善保管遗失物。因故意或者重大过失致使遗失物毁损、灭失的,应当承担民事责任。

Article 111 The person who finds the object shall properly keep it before it is handed over to the related department, and the related department also shall do so before it is claimed by the right holder. Where the object is injured or lost deliberately or for gross negligence, the personnel concerned shall assume the civil liabilities.

第一百一十二条 权利人领取遗失物时,应当向拾得人或者有关部门支付保管遗失物等支出的必要费用。

Article 112 The right holder of the object, when obtaining a lost-and-found object, shall pay the person who finds the object or the related department such necessary expenses as the cost for safekeeping the object.

权利人悬赏寻找遗失物的,领取遗失物时应当按照承诺履行义务。

Where a right holder promises to offering a reward for finding the object, he shall, when claiming the object, perform the obligation of granting the reward.

拾得人侵占遗失物的,无权请求保管遗失物等支出的费用,也无权请求权利人按照承诺履行义务。

Where the person who finds the object misappropriates the lost object, he/she shall be deprived of the right to ask for paying the expenses he/she has paid for safekeeping the object or require the holder to perform the obligation as promised.

第一百一十三条 遗失物自发布招领公告之日起六个月内无人认领的,归国家所有。

Article 113 In case a lost-and-found object fails to be claimed within 6 months as of the date when the claiming announcement o is published, it shall be owned by the state.

第一百一十四条 拾得漂流物、发现埋藏物或者隐藏物的,参照拾得遗失物的有关规定。文物保护法等法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 114 As regards the finding of a drifter or the discovery of an object buried underground or a hidden property, the relevant provisions on the finding of a lost-and-found property shall apply by analogy. Where there is any other provision in such laws as the law concerning the protection of cultural relics, such provisions shall prevail.

第一百一十五条 主物转让的,从物随主物转让,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三编 用益物权 Part III Usufructuary Right

第十章 一般规定 Chapter X General Rules

第一百一十七条 用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。

Article 117 As regards the realty or chattel owned by someone else, a usufructuary right holder is entitled to possess, use and seek proceeds from it in accordance with law.

第一百一十八条 国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,单位、个人依法可以占有、使用和收益。 Article 118 As regards the natural resources that are owned by the state or that are owned by the state but used by the collective as well as those that are owned by the collective as prescribed by law, an entity or individual may possess, use and seek proceeds from them.

第一百一十九条 国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 119 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the state practices the system of paid use of natural resources.

第一百二十条 用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源的规定。所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。 Article 120 When exercising right, a usufructuary right holder shall comply with the provisions on protecting, reasonably exploring and utilizing resources as provided for in the laws. When the usufructuary right holder exercises rights, the owner may not intervene in.

第一百二十一条 因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有权依照本法第四十二条、第四十四条的规定获得相应补偿。 Article 121 Where the usufructuary right is terminated or its exercise is affected for reasons of expropriation or requisition, the usufructuary right holder has the right to obtain corresponding compensations in accordance with Articles 42 and 44 of the present Law.

第一百二十二条 依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。 Article 122 The lawfully obtained right to use sea areas shall be under the protection of law.

第一百二十三条 依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。 Article 123 The mineral prospecting right, the mining right, the water intake right and the right to use water areas or tidal flats for breeding or fishery shall be under the protection of law.

第十一章 土地承包经营权 Chapter XI Right to the Contracted Management of Land

第一百二十四条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。 Article 124 Such a dual operation system, under which centralized operation and decentralized operation are combined on the basis of household contracted management, shall be practiced by any rural economic organization.

农民集体所有和国家所有由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地以及其他用于农业的土地,依法实行土地承包经营制度。 As regards the cultivated land, wood land, grassland, and other land for agricultural uses that are owned by farmers’ collectives as well as those that are owned by the state and used by farmers’ collectives, the system of land contracted management shall be adopted.

第一百二十五条 土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。 Article 125 The holder of the right to the contracted management of land has the right to possess, utilize and seek proceeds from the cultivated land, wood land and grassland, etc. under the contracted management thereof, and is entitled to such agricultural production activities as the planting, forestry, stockbreeding, etc.

第一百二十六条 耕地的承包期为三十年。草地的承包期为三十年至五十年。林地的承包期为三十年至七十年;特殊林木的林地承包期,经国务院林业行政主管部门批准可以延长。 Article 126 The contractual term of cultivated land shall be 30 years. The contractual term of grassland shall be 30 up to 50 years. The contractual term of wood land shall be 30 up to 70 years. The contractual term of special forest land may, upon approval of the forestry administrative department under the State Council, be extended.

前款规定的承包期届满,由土地承包经营权人按照国家有关规定继续承包。 After the contractual term as referred to in the preceding paragraph expires, the holder of the right to the contracted management of land may, according to the relevant provisions of the state, contract continuously.

第一百二十七条 土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。 Article 127 The right to the contracted management of land shall be established since the contract thereon goes into effect.

县级以上地方人民政府应当向土地承包经营权人发放土地承包经营权证、林权证、草原使用权证,并登记造册,确认土地承包经营权。 The local people’s government at the country level or above shall issue a certificate of the right to the contracted management of land, a forestry right certificate or a grassland-use right certificate to the holder, register it in the brochure so as to confirm such rights.

第一百二十八条 土地承包经营权人依照农村土地承包法的规定,有权将土地承包经营权采取转包、互换、转让等方式流转。流转的期限不得超过承包期的剩余期限。未经依法批准,不得将承包地用于非农建设。 Article 128 The holder of the right to the contracted management of land has the right, in accordance with the provisions in the law on the contracting of rural land, to circulate his/her such right. The circulated term may not be more than the remnant term of the original contract. Any contracted land may not be used for non-agricultural constructions without approval.

第一百二十九条 土地承包经营权人将土地承包经营权互换、转让,当事人要求登记的,应当向县级以上地方人民政府申请土地承包经营权变更登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 129 In case the right to the contracted management of land is circulated by means of exchange or transfer, where the parties concerned require for the registration of such circulation, an application for the alteration registration thereof shall be filed to the local people’s government at the county level or above. Without such registration, neither party may challenge any third party with good faith.

第一百三十条 承包期内发包人不得调整承包地。 Article 130 The contract-letting party may not readjust the contracted land within the duration of a contract.

因自然灾害严重毁损承包地等特殊情形,需要适当调整承包的耕地和草地的,应当依照农村土地承包法等法律规定办理。 In case it is necessary to readjust the cultivated land or grassland as contracted by virtue of such especial events as natural calamities that have materially injured the contracted land, a readjustment may, in accordance with the legal provisions in the law on the contracting of rural land and other related laws, be carried out.

第一百三十一条 承包期内发包人不得收回承包地。农村土地承包法等法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 131 The contract-letting party may not take back the contracted land within the term of the contract. In case there exists any otherwise provision in the law on the contracting of rural land or any other law, such provision shall prevail.

第一百三十二条 承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依照本法第四十二条第二款的规定获得相应补偿。 Article 132 In case a contracted land is expropriated, the holder of the right to the contracted management of such land has the right to obtain corresponding compensations in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 42 in the present Law.

第一百三十三条 通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包荒地等农村土地,依照农村土地承包法等法律和国务院的有关规定,其土地承包经营权可以转让、入股、抵押或者以其他方式流转。 Article 133 As regards the barren land or other rural land that is contracted through bid invitation, auction, or open negotiation, etc, the right to the contracted management thereof may, according to the law on the contracting of rural land and other laws as well the related regulations of the State Council, be circulated by means of alienation, lease, equity contribution, or mortgage, etc.

第一百三十四条 国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照本法的有关规定。 Article 134 In case the contracted management is conducted over any state-owned rural land, the related provisions in the present Law shall apply by analogy.

第十二章 建设用地使用权 Chapter XII Right to Use Construction Land

第一百三十五条 建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。 Article 135 The holder of the right to use construction land has the right to possess, use and seek proceeds from the land owned by the state, and shall be entitled to the construction of buildings, fixtures and their auxiliary facilities by making use of such land.

第一百三十六条 建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。新设立的建设用地使用权,不得损害已设立的用益物权。 Article 136 The right to use construction land may be created separately on the surface of or above or under the land. The newly-established one may not injure the usufructuary right that has already been established.

第一百三十七条 设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。 Article 137 The right to use construction land may be created through transfer or allotment, etc.

工业、商业、旅游、娱乐和商品住宅等经营性用地以及同一土地有两个以上意向用地者的,应当采取招标、拍卖等公开竞价的方式出让。 As regards the land used for purposes of industry, business, entertainment or commercial dwelling houses, etc. as well as the land with two or more intended users, the alienation thereof shall adopt such means as auction, bid invitation or any other public bidding method.

严格限制以划拨方式设立建设用地使用权。采取划拨方式的,应当遵守法律、行政法规关于土地用途的规定。 It is severely restrained to create the right to use construction land through allotment. For adopting such means, the provisions on land uses in the laws and administrative regulations shall be observed.

第一百三十八条 采取招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人应当采取书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。 Article 138 In case the right to use construction land is created through auction, bid invitation, or agreement, etc., the related parties shall conclude a written contract on the transfer of such right.

建设用地使用权出让合同一般包括下列条款: In general, a contract on transfer of the right to use construction land shall contain the items as follows:

(一) 当事人的名称和住所; (1) name and domicile of the parties concerned;

(二) 土地界址、面积等; (2) [] and acreage, etc. of the land;

(三) 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用的空间; (3) space to be covered by buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof;

(四) 土地用途; (4) use purposes;

(五) 使用期限; (5) use term;

(六) 出让金等费用及其支付方式; (6) payment methods for allotment fees and other fees; and

(七) 解决争议的方法。 (7) dispute settlement method.

第一百三十九条 设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。建设用地使用权自登记时设立。登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放建设用地使用权证书。 Article 139 For establishing the right to use construction land, an application for registering such right shall be submitted to the registration organ. The right to use construction land shall be established as of the accomplishment of such registration. A certificate on the right to use construction land shall be issued by the registration organ to the holder of the right to use construction land.

第一百四十条 建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。 Article 140 The holder of the right to use construction land shall reasonably use the land and may not alter the use purpose. In case the purpose of land use needs to be altered, the approval of the relevant administrative department shall be obtained.

第一百四十一条 建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费用。 Article 141 The holder of the right to use construction land shall, according to the legal provisions and the contract, pay transfer fees and other fees.

第一百四十二条 建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但有相反证据证明的除外。 Article 142 As regards the buildings, fixtures and their affiliated facilities built by the holder of the right to use construction land, the holder shall enjoy the ownership thereof, unless it is otherwise proved by any contrary evidence.

第一百四十三条 建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 143 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the holder of the right to use construction land has the right to alienate, exchange, use as equity contributions, endow or mortgage the right to use construction land.

第一百四十四条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采取书面形式订立相应的合同。使用期限由当事人约定,但不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。 Article 144 For alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the right to use construction land, the parties shall enter into a corresponding written contract. The parties concerned may make stipulations on the contractual term, but which may not exceed the remnant term as stipulated in the contract on transfer of the right to use construction land.

第一百四十五条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。 Article 145 For alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the right to use construction land, an application for alteration registration shall be submitted to the registration organ.

第一百四十六条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施一并处分。 Article 146 When alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the right to use construction land, the buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof on such land shall be disposed of at the same time.

第一百四十七条 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。 Article 147 When alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof, the right to use construction land covered by the aforesaid buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof shall be disposed of at the same time.

第一百四十八条 建设用地使用权期间届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,应当依照本法第四十二条的规定对该土地上的房屋及其他不动产给予补偿,并退还相应的出让金。 Article 148 Before the term of the right to use construction land expires, where it is necessary to take back the land in advance by virtue of public interests, compensations shall, according to Article 42 of this Law, be given to the houses and other realties on such land, and corresponding land transfer fees shall be returned back.

第一百四十九条 住宅建设用地使用权期间届满的,自动续期。 Article 149 When the term of the right to use construction land for dwelling houses expires, it shall be renewed automatically.

非住宅建设用地使用权期间届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。该土地上的房屋及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。 As regards the term of the right to use construction land not for dwelling houses, the renewing shall be subject to legal provisions. In case there exists any stipulation on the ownership of houses and other realties on the aforesaid land, such stipulation shall prevail; in the case of no or unclear such stipulation, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions in the laws and administrative regulations.

第一百五十条 建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。登记机构应当收回建设用地使用权证书。 Article 150 Where the right to use construction land is terminated, the transferor shall go through deregistration formalities in time, and the certificate on the right to use construction land shall be taken back by the registration organ.

第一百五十一条 集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理法等法律规定办理。 Article 151 Where a piece of collectively-owned land is used as construction land, it shall be handled in accordance with the law on land administration and other related laws.

第十三章 宅基地使用权 Chapter XIII Right to Use House Sites

第一百五十二条 宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。 Article 152 The holder of the right to use house sites has the right to possess and use land owned by a collective, and to construct residential houses and affiliated facilities thereof by utilizing such land.

第一百五十三条 宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理法等法律和国家有关规定。 Article 153 For acquiring, exercising and alienating the right to use house sites, the law on land administration, other related laws and the related provisions of the state shall apply.

第一百五十四条 宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。对失去宅基地的村民,应当重新分配宅基地。 Article 154 The right to use house site shall be terminated where a house site is terminated by virtue of any natural disaster, etc.. A villager losing a house site shall be allotted a house site again.

第一百五十五条 已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。 Article 155 The alteration or cancellation registration shall be made in time in the case of the alienation or termination of a registered right to use house sites.

第十四章 地役权 Chapter XIV Easement

第一百五十六条 地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不动产的效益。 Article 156 An easement holder shall, according to the contract, be entitled to utilize the realty of someone else so as to enhance the efficiency of his own realty.

前款所称他人的不动产为供役地,自己的不动产为需役地。 The term “realty of someone else” as referred to in the preceding Paragraph shall be the servient tenement, and “one’s own realty” shall be the dominant tenement.

第一百五十七条 设立地役权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立地役权合同。 Article 157 For establishing an easement, the parties concerned shall enter into an written easement contract.

地役权合同一般包括下列条款: In general, an easement contract shall contain the items as follows:

(一) 当事人的姓名或者名称和住所; (1) name and domicile of the related parties;

(二) 供役地和需役地的位置; (2) []s of servient tenement and dominant tenement;

(三) 利用目的和方法; (3) purposes of use and methods;

(四) 利用期限; (4) use term;

(五) 费用及其支付方式; (5) fees and payment method; and

(六) 解决争议的方法。 (6) dispute settlement method.

第一百五十八条 地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 158 The easement shall be established since the easement contract comes into effect. Where the related parties considers that the registration thereof is necessary, they may apply to the registration organ for easement registration; otherwise, they may not challenge any third party with good faith.

第一百五十九条 供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其土地,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。 Article 159 The holder of servient tenement shall allow an easement holder to use his/its land in accordance with the contract, and may not hamper the latter from exercising the right.

第一百六十条 地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。 Article 160 An easement holder shall, according to the purposes and methods as stipulated in the contract, use the servient tenement, and make efforts to reduce the real right restrictions on the holder of the servient tenement.

第一百六十一条 地役权的期限由当事人约定,但不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的剩余期限。 Article 161 The easement term shall be stipulated by the related parties, however, it can not be longer than the remnant term of such usufructuary rights as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land, etc.

第一百六十二条 土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权时,该土地承包经营权人、宅基地使用权人继续享有或者负担已设立的地役权。 Article 162 As regards the easement enjoyed or assumed by the owner of the land, where the right to the contracted management of land or the right to use house site is created, holders of such rights the right to the contracted management of land or rights may continuously enjoy or assume such established easement.

第一百六十三条 土地上已设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等权利的,未经用益物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。 Article 163 Where any such usufructuary right as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use house site, etc on the land has already been established, the land owner may, without consent of the aforesaid usufructuary right holder, not establish any easement.

第一百六十四条 地役权不得单独转让。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但合同另有约定的除外。 Article 164 The easement may not be transferred alone. Unless it is otherwise stipulated by the contract, where any such usufructuary right as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land, the right to use house site, etc is alienated, the easement shall be alienated at the same time.

第一百六十五条 地役权不得单独抵押。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。 Article 165 The easement may not be mortgaged alone. Where the right to the contracted management of land or the right to use construction land, etc. is mortgaged, when such mortgage is realized, the easement shall be alienated simultaneously.

第一百六十六条 需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。 Article 166 When the dominant tenement as well as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land or the right to use house site thereon are partially alienated, the transferee shall enjoy the easement simultaneously in case the easement is involved in the alienated part,.

第一百六十七条 供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有约束力。 Article 167 When the servient tenement as well as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land thereon are partially alienated, the easement shall be binding on the alienatee if the easement is involved in alienated part.

第一百六十八条 地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭: Article 168 The holder of the servient tenement has the right to rescind the easement contract in case an easement holder is under any of the following circumstances, and the easement shall be terminated:

(一) 违反法律规定或者合同约定,滥用地役权; (1) to go against the legal provisions or the contract, or misuse the easement; or

(二) 有偿利用供役地,约定的付款期间届满后在合理期限内经两次催告未支付费用。 (2) as regards the paid use of servient tenement, upon expiration of the stipulated time limit for payment, fails to pay fees within a reasonable period for two times after being urged to do so.

第一百六十九条 已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。 Article 169 For changing, alienating or eliminating the registered easement, the alteration or cancellation registration shall be go through in a timely manner.

第三编 用益物权 Part III Usufructuary Right

第十章 一般规定 Chapter X General Rules

第一百一十七条 用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。

Article 117 As regards the realty or chattel owned by someone else, a usufructuary right holder is entitled to possess, use and seek proceeds from it in accordance with law.

第一百一十八条 国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,单位、个人依法可以占有、使用和收益。 Article 118 As regards the natural resources that are owned by the state or that are owned by the state but used by the collective as well as those that are owned by the collective as prescribed by law, an entity or individual may possess, use and seek proceeds from them.

第一百一十九条 国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 119 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the state practices the system of paid use of natural resources.

第一百二十条 用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源的规定。所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。 Article 120 When exercising right, a usufructuary right holder shall comply with the provisions on protecting, reasonably exploring and utilizing resources as provided for in the laws. When the usufructuary right holder exercises rights, the owner may not intervene in.

第一百二十一条 因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有权依照本法第四十二条、第四十四条的规定获得相应补偿。 Article 121 Where the usufructuary right is terminated or its exercise is affected for reasons of expropriation or requisition, the usufructuary right holder has the right to obtain corresponding compensations in accordance with Articles 42 and 44 of the present Law.

第一百二十二条 依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。 Article 122 The lawfully obtained right to use sea areas shall be under the protection of law.

第一百二十三条 依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。 Article 123 The mineral prospecting right, the mining right, the water intake right and the right to use water areas or tidal flats for breeding or fishery shall be under the protection of law.

第十一章 土地承包经营权 Chapter XI Right to the Contracted Management of Land

第一百二十四条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。 Article 124 Such a dual operation system, under which centralized operation and decentralized operation are combined on the basis of household contracted management, shall be practiced by any rural economic organization.

农民集体所有和国家所有由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地以及其他用于农业的土地,依法实行土地承包经营制度。 As regards the cultivated land, wood land, grassland, and other land for agricultural uses that are owned by farmers’ collectives as well as those that are owned by the state and used by farmers’ collectives, the system of land contracted management shall be adopted.

第一百二十五条 土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。 Article 125 The holder of the right to the contracted management of land has the right to possess, utilize and seek proceeds from the cultivated land, wood land and grassland, etc. under the contracted management thereof, and is entitled to such agricultural production activities as the planting, forestry, stockbreeding, etc.

第一百二十六条 耕地的承包期为三十年。草地的承包期为三十年至五十年。林地的承包期为三十年至七十年;特殊林木的林地承包期,经国务院林业行政主管部门批准可以延长。 Article 126 The contractual term of cultivated land shall be 30 years. The contractual term of grassland shall be 30 up to 50 years. The contractual term of wood land shall be 30 up to 70 years. The contractual term of special forest land may, upon approval of the forestry administrative department under the State Council, be extended.

前款规定的承包期届满,由土地承包经营权人按照国家有关规定继续承包。 After the contractual term as referred to in the preceding paragraph expires, the holder of the right to the contracted management of land may, according to the relevant provisions of the state, contract continuously.

第一百二十七条 土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。 Article 127 The right to the contracted management of land shall be established since the contract thereon goes into effect.

县级以上地方人民政府应当向土地承包经营权人发放土地承包经营权证、林权证、草原使用权证,并登记造册,确认土地承包经营权。 The local people’s government at the country level or above shall issue a certificate of the right to the contracted management of land, a forestry right certificate or a grassland-use right certificate to the holder, register it in the brochure so as to confirm such rights.

第一百二十八条 土地承包经营权人依照农村土地承包法的规定,有权将土地承包经营权采取转包、互换、转让等方式流转。流转的期限不得超过承包期的剩余期限。未经依法批准,不得将承包地用于非农建设。 Article 128 The holder of the right to the contracted management of land has the right, in accordance with the provisions in the law on the contracting of rural land, to circulate his/her such right. The circulated term may not be more than the remnant term of the original contract. Any contracted land may not be used for non-agricultural constructions without approval.

第一百二十九条 土地承包经营权人将土地承包经营权互换、转让,当事人要求登记的,应当向县级以上地方人民政府申请土地承包经营权变更登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 129 In case the right to the contracted management of land is circulated by means of exchange or transfer, where the parties concerned require for the registration of such circulation, an application for the alteration registration thereof shall be filed to the local people’s government at the county level or above. Without such registration, neither party may challenge any third party with good faith.

第一百三十条 承包期内发包人不得调整承包地。 Article 130 The contract-letting party may not readjust the contracted land within the duration of a contract.

因自然灾害严重毁损承包地等特殊情形,需要适当调整承包的耕地和草地的,应当依照农村土地承包法等法律规定办理。 In case it is necessary to readjust the cultivated land or grassland as contracted by virtue of such especial events as natural calamities that have materially injured the contracted land, a readjustment may, in accordance with the legal provisions in the law on the contracting of rural land and other related laws, be carried out.

第一百三十一条 承包期内发包人不得收回承包地。农村土地承包法等法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 131 The contract-letting party may not take back the contracted land within the term of the contract. In case there exists any otherwise provision in the law on the contracting of rural land or any other law, such provision shall prevail.

第一百三十二条 承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依照本法第四十二条第二款的规定获得相应补偿。 Article 132 In case a contracted land is expropriated, the holder of the right to the contracted management of such land has the right to obtain corresponding compensations in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 42 in the present Law.

第一百三十三条 通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包荒地等农村土地,依照农村土地承包法等法律和国务院的有关规定,其土地承包经营权可以转让、入股、抵押或者以其他方式流转。 Article 133 As regards the barren land or other rural land that is contracted through bid invitation, auction, or open negotiation, etc, the right to the contracted management thereof may, according to the law on the contracting of rural land and other laws as well the related regulations of the State Council, be circulated by means of alienation, lease, equity contribution, or mortgage, etc.

第一百三十四条 国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照本法的有关规定。 Article 134 In case the contracted management is conducted over any state-owned rural land, the related provisions in the present Law shall apply by analogy.

第十二章 建设用地使用权 Chapter XII Right to Use Construction Land

第一百三十五条 建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。 Article 135 The holder of the right to use construction land has the right to possess, use and seek proceeds from the land owned by the state, and shall be entitled to the construction of buildings, fixtures and their auxiliary facilities by making use of such land.

第一百三十六条 建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。新设立的建设用地使用权,不得损害已设立的用益物权。 Article 136 The right to use construction land may be created separately on the surface of or above or under the land. The newly-established one may not injure the usufructuary right that has already been established.

第一百三十七条 设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。 Article 137 The right to use construction land may be created through transfer or allotment, etc.

工业、商业、旅游、娱乐和商品住宅等经营性用地以及同一土地有两个以上意向用地者的,应当采取招标、拍卖等公开竞价的方式出让。 As regards the land used for purposes of industry, business, entertainment or commercial dwelling houses, etc. as well as the land with two or more intended users, the alienation thereof shall adopt such means as auction, bid invitation or any other public bidding method.

严格限制以划拨方式设立建设用地使用权。采取划拨方式的,应当遵守法律、行政法规关于土地用途的规定。 It is severely restrained to create the right to use construction land through allotment. For adopting such means, the provisions on land uses in the laws and administrative regulations shall be observed.

第一百三十八条 采取招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人应当采取书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。 Article 138 In case the right to use construction land is created through auction, bid invitation, or agreement, etc., the related parties shall conclude a written contract on the transfer of such right.

建设用地使用权出让合同一般包括下列条款: In general, a contract on transfer of the right to use construction land shall contain the items as follows:

(一) 当事人的名称和住所; (1) name and domicile of the parties concerned;

(二) 土地界址、面积等; (2) [] and acreage, etc. of the land;

(三) 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用的空间; (3) space to be covered by buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof;

(四) 土地用途; (4) use purposes;

(五) 使用期限; (5) use term;

(六) 出让金等费用及其支付方式; (6) payment methods for allotment fees and other fees; and

(七) 解决争议的方法。 (7) dispute settlement method.

第一百三十九条 设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。建设用地使用权自登记时设立。登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放建设用地使用权证书。 Article 139 For establishing the right to use construction land, an application for registering such right shall be submitted to the registration organ. The right to use construction land shall be established as of the accomplishment of such registration. A certificate on the right to use construction land shall be issued by the registration organ to the holder of the right to use construction land.

第一百四十条 建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。 Article 140 The holder of the right to use construction land shall reasonably use the land and may not alter the use purpose. In case the purpose of land use needs to be altered, the approval of the relevant administrative department shall be obtained.

第一百四十一条 建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费用。 Article 141 The holder of the right to use construction land shall, according to the legal provisions and the contract, pay transfer fees and other fees.

第一百四十二条 建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但有相反证据证明的除外。 Article 142 As regards the buildings, fixtures and their affiliated facilities built by the holder of the right to use construction land, the holder shall enjoy the ownership thereof, unless it is otherwise proved by any contrary evidence.

第一百四十三条 建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 143 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the holder of the right to use construction land has the right to alienate, exchange, use as equity contributions, endow or mortgage the right to use construction land.

第一百四十四条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采取书面形式订立相应的合同。使用期限由当事人约定,但不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。 Article 144 For alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the right to use construction land, the parties shall enter into a corresponding written contract. The parties concerned may make stipulations on the contractual term, but which may not exceed the remnant term as stipulated in the contract on transfer of the right to use construction land.

第一百四十五条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。 Article 145 For alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the right to use construction land, an application for alteration registration shall be submitted to the registration organ.

第一百四十六条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施一并处分。 Article 146 When alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the right to use construction land, the buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof on such land shall be disposed of at the same time.

第一百四十七条 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。 Article 147 When alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging the buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof, the right to use construction land covered by the aforesaid buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities thereof shall be disposed of at the same time.

第一百四十八条 建设用地使用权期间届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,应当依照本法第四十二条的规定对该土地上的房屋及其他不动产给予补偿,并退还相应的出让金。 Article 148 Before the term of the right to use construction land expires, where it is necessary to take back the land in advance by virtue of public interests, compensations shall, according to Article 42 of this Law, be given to the houses and other realties on such land, and corresponding land transfer fees shall be returned back.

第一百四十九条 住宅建设用地使用权期间届满的,自动续期。 Article 149 When the term of the right to use construction land for dwelling houses expires, it shall be renewed automatically.

非住宅建设用地使用权期间届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。该土地上的房屋及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。 As regards the term of the right to use construction land not for dwelling houses, the renewing shall be subject to legal provisions. In case there exists any stipulation on the ownership of houses and other realties on the aforesaid land, such stipulation shall prevail; in the case of no or unclear such stipulation, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions in the laws and administrative regulations.

第一百五十条 建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。登记机构应当收回建设用地使用权证书。 Article 150 Where the right to use construction land is terminated, the transferor shall go through deregistration formalities in time, and the certificate on the right to use construction land shall be taken back by the registration organ.

第一百五十一条 集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理法等法律规定办理。 Article 151 Where a piece of collectively-owned land is used as construction land, it shall be handled in accordance with the law on land administration and other related laws.

第十三章 宅基地使用权 Chapter XIII Right to Use House Sites

第一百五十二条 宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。 Article 152 The holder of the right to use house sites has the right to possess and use land owned by a collective, and to construct residential houses and affiliated facilities thereof by utilizing such land.

第一百五十三条 宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理法等法律和国家有关规定。 Article 153 For acquiring, exercising and alienating the right to use house sites, the law on land administration, other related laws and the related provisions of the state shall apply.

第一百五十四条 宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。对失去宅基地的村民,应当重新分配宅基地。 Article 154 The right to use house site shall be terminated where a house site is terminated by virtue of any natural disaster, etc.. A villager losing a house site shall be allotted a house site again.

第一百五十五条 已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。 Article 155 The alteration or cancellation registration shall be made in time in the case of the alienation or termination of a registered right to use house sites.

第十四章 地役权 Chapter XIV Easement

第一百五十六条 地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不动产的效益。 Article 156 An easement holder shall, according to the contract, be entitled to utilize the realty of someone else so as to enhance the efficiency of his own realty.

前款所称他人的不动产为供役地,自己的不动产为需役地。 The term “realty of someone else” as referred to in the preceding Paragraph shall be the servient tenement, and “one’s own realty” shall be the dominant tenement.

第一百五十七条 设立地役权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立地役权合同。 Article 157 For establishing an easement, the parties concerned shall enter into an written easement contract.

地役权合同一般包括下列条款: In general, an easement contract shall contain the items as follows:

(一) 当事人的姓名或者名称和住所; (1) name and domicile of the related parties;

(二) 供役地和需役地的位置; (2) []s of servient tenement and dominant tenement;

(三) 利用目的和方法; (3) purposes of use and methods;

(四) 利用期限; (4) use term;

(五) 费用及其支付方式; (5) fees and payment method; and

(六) 解决争议的方法。 (6) dispute settlement method.

第一百五十八条 地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 158 The easement shall be established since the easement contract comes into effect. Where the related parties considers that the registration thereof is necessary, they may apply to the registration organ for easement registration; otherwise, they may not challenge any third party with good faith.

第一百五十九条 供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其土地,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。 Article 159 The holder of servient tenement shall allow an easement holder to use his/its land in accordance with the contract, and may not hamper the latter from exercising the right.

第一百六十条 地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。 Article 160 An easement holder shall, according to the purposes and methods as stipulated in the contract, use the servient tenement, and make efforts to reduce the real right restrictions on the holder of the servient tenement.

第一百六十一条 地役权的期限由当事人约定,但不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的剩余期限。 Article 161 The easement term shall be stipulated by the related parties, however, it can not be longer than the remnant term of such usufructuary rights as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land, etc.

第一百六十二条 土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权时,该土地承包经营权人、宅基地使用权人继续享有或者负担已设立的地役权。 Article 162 As regards the easement enjoyed or assumed by the owner of the land, where the right to the contracted management of land or the right to use house site is created, holders of such rights the right to the contracted management of land or rights may continuously enjoy or assume such established easement.

第一百六十三条 土地上已设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等权利的,未经用益物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。 Article 163 Where any such usufructuary right as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use house site, etc on the land has already been established, the land owner may, without consent of the aforesaid usufructuary right holder, not establish any easement.

第一百六十四条 地役权不得单独转让。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但合同另有约定的除外。 Article 164 The easement may not be transferred alone. Unless it is otherwise stipulated by the contract, where any such usufructuary right as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land, the right to use house site, etc is alienated, the easement shall be alienated at the same time.

第一百六十五条 地役权不得单独抵押。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。 Article 165 The easement may not be mortgaged alone. Where the right to the contracted management of land or the right to use construction land, etc. is mortgaged, when such mortgage is realized, the easement shall be alienated simultaneously.

第一百六十六条 需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。 Article 166 When the dominant tenement as well as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land or the right to use house site thereon are partially alienated, the transferee shall enjoy the easement simultaneously in case the easement is involved in the alienated part,.

第一百六十七条 供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有约束力。 Article 167 When the servient tenement as well as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use construction land thereon are partially alienated, the easement shall be binding on the alienatee if the easement is involved in alienated part.

第一百六十八条 地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭: Article 168 The holder of the servient tenement has the right to rescind the easement contract in case an easement holder is under any of the following circumstances, and the easement shall be terminated:

(一) 违反法律规定或者合同约定,滥用地役权; (1) to go against the legal provisions or the contract, or misuse the easement; or

(二) 有偿利用供役地,约定的付款期间届满后在合理期限内经两次催告未支付费用。 (2) as regards the paid use of servient tenement, upon expiration of the stipulated time limit for payment, fails to pay fees within a reasonable period for two times after being urged to do so.

第一百六十九条 已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。 Article 169 For changing, alienating or eliminating the registered easement, the alteration or cancellation registration shall be go through in a timely manner.

第四编 担保物权 Part IV Real Rights for Security

第十五章 一般规定 Chapter XV General Rules

第一百七十条 担保物权人在债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,依法享有就担保财产优先受偿的权利,但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 170 Where the obligor fails to pay its due debts or any circumstance for realizing real rights for security as stipulated by the parties concerned happens, the holder of real rights for security shall enjoy preferred payments from the property for security, except that it is otherwise provided for by any law.

第一百七十一条 债权人在借贷、买卖等民事活动中,为保障实现其债权,需要担保的,可以依照本法和其他法律的规定设立担保物权。 Article 171 According to the present Law or any other law, an obligee may, in such civil activities as loans or sales, establish the real rights for security in case the security is required for ensuring the realization of its/his credits.

第三人为债务人向债权人提供担保的,可以要求债务人提供反担保。反担保适用本法和其他法律的规定。 Where a third party provides security to the obligee for an obligor, countersecurity from the obligor may be required. The countersecurity shall be pursuant to the present Law and other related laws.

第一百七十二条 设立担保物权,应当依照本法和其他法律的规定订立担保合同。担保合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效,担保合同无效,但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 172 For establishing real rights for security, a security contract shall be entered into in accordance with the present Law and the other related laws. A security contract shall be a subordinate one to the principal contract. Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the security contract shall be invalid when the principal contract is nullified.

担保合同被确认无效后,债务人、担保人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自承担相应的民事责任。 After a security contract is confirmed to be nullified, the obligor, the security provider and the obligee that has faults shall, in light of their respective faults, undertake corresponding civil liabilities.

第一百七十三条 担保物权的担保范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产和实现担保物权的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照约定。 Article 173 The security range shall cover principal obligee’s rights and their interests, default fines, damages as well as expenses for keeping the property for security and for realizing the real rights for security. In case there are otherwise stipulations between the related parties, such stipulations shall prevail.

第一百七十四条 担保期间,担保财产毁损、灭失或者被征收等,担保物权人可以就获得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等优先受偿。被担保债权的履行期未届满的,也可以提存该保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等。 Article 174 In case, during the security term, the property for security is damaged, lost or expropriated, the security holder may seek preferred payments from the insurance money, damages or indemnities, etc. incurred therefrom. If the term for performing the obligee’s rights as secured has not expired, such insurance money, damages or indemnities, etc. may be submitted to a competent authority for keeping.

第一百七十五条 第三人提供担保,未经其书面同意,债权人允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务的,担保人不再承担相应的担保责任。 Article 175 As regards any security provided by a third party, where the obligee, without obtaining the written consent of the third party, allows the obligor to transfer all or part of its obligations, the security provider does not have to undertake corresponding security liabilities any more.

第一百七十六条 被担保的债权既有物的担保又有人的担保的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人应当按照约定实现债权;没有约定或者约定不明确,债务人自己提供物的担保的,债权人应当先就该物的担保实现债权;第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以就物的担保实现债权,也可以要求保证人承担保证责任。提供担保的第三人承担担保责任后,有权向债务人追偿。 Article 176 As regards a secured credit involving both physical and personal security, where the obligor fails to pay its due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the property for security happens, the obligee shall realize the obligee’s rights as stipulated; in the case of no or unclear such stipulation, and where the obligor provides his/its own property for the security, the obligee’s rights shall be realized firstly by the security in property; and if the security by property is provided by a third party, the obligee may, by the physical security or through requiring the guarantor to assume the guaranty liability, realize the obligee’s rights. The third party has the right,, after undertaking the security liability, to recover payments from the obligor.

第一百七十七条 有下列情形之一的,担保物权消灭: Article 177 Real rights for security may be terminated under any of the following circumstances:

(一) 主债权消灭; (1) The principal obligee’s rights are terminated;

(二) 担保物权实现; (2) The real rights for security have been realized;

(三) 债权人放弃担保物权; (3) The obligee waives the real rights for security; or

(四) 法律规定担保物权消灭的其他情形。 (4) Any other circumstance under which the real rights for security will be terminated as provided for by any law.

第一百七十八条 担保法与本法的规定不一致的,适用本法。 Article 178 Where any provision in the Security Law conflicts with that of the present Law, the latter shall prevail.

第十六章 抵押权 Chapter XVI Mortgage Right

第一节 一般抵押权 Section 1 General Mortgage Right

第一百七十九条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人不转移财产的占有,将该财产抵押给债权人的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就该财产优先受偿。 Article 179 In order to ensure the payment of debts, an obligor or a third party mortgages his/its properties to the obligee without transferring the possession of such properties, and when the obligor fails to pay due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage right happens, the obligee has the right to seek preferred payments from such properties.

前款规定的债务人或者第三人为抵押人,债权人为抵押权人,提供担保的财产为抵押财产。 The “obligor” or “third party” as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the mortgagor, the “obligee” shall be the mortgagee, while the “properties for security” shall be the mortgaged properties.

第一百八十条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列财产可以抵押: Article 180 As regards the following properties that the obligor or the third party has the right to dispose of, mortgage may be established thereon :

(一) 建筑物和其他土地附着物; (1) buildings and other objects fixed to land;

(二) 建设用地使用权; (2) the right to use construction land;

(三) 以招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式取得的荒地等土地承包经营权; (3) the right to contracted management of such land as barren land, etc. that is acquired through bid invitation, auction and public consultation, etc.;

(四) 生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品; (4) manufacturing facilities, raw materials, semi-manufactured goods and finished products;

(五) 正在建造的建筑物、船舶、航空器; (5) buildings, vessels and aircraft under construction;

(六) 交通运输工具; (6) means of communications and transportation; and

(七) 法律、行政法规未禁止抵押的其他财产。 (7) other properties not prohibited from being mortgaged by any law or administrative regulation.

抵押人可以将前款所列财产一并抵押。 All the properties listed in the previous paragraph may be mortgaged together by a mortgagor.

第一百八十一条 经当事人书面协议,企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者可以将现有的以及将有的生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品抵押,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就实现抵押权时的动产优先受偿。 Article 181 An enterprise, individual industrial and commercial household or agricultural production operator may, upon the written agreement between the parties concerned, mortgage the existing manufacturing facilities, raw materials, semi-manufactured goods and finished products or those to be owned in future, and when the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the right to mortgage arises, the obligee has the right to seek preferred payments from the chattels existing at the time of the realization of the right to mortgage.

第一百八十二条 以建筑物抵押的,该建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。以建设用地使用权抵押的,该土地上的建筑物一并抵押。 Article 182 For mortgaging building, the right to use construction land within the area of this building shall be mortgaged together. When mortgaging the right to use construction land, all the buildings on such land shall be mortgaged together.

抵押人未依照前款规定一并抵押的,未抵押的财产视为一并抵押。 Where a mortgagor fails to mortgage the properties in accordance with the provisions in the preceding paragraph, the properties not mortgaged shall be treated as having been mortgaged together.

第一百八十三条 乡镇、村企业的建设用地使用权不得单独抵押。以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物抵押的,其占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。 Article 183 As regards the right to use construction land of a township or village enterprise, mortgages may not be alone established thereon. Where the plant of a township and village enterprise is mortgaged, the right to use construction land within the area of such plant shall be mortgaged together.

第一百八十四条 下列财产不得抵押: Article 184 Any of the following properties may not be mortgaged:

(一) 土地所有权; (1) ownership of land;

(二) 耕地、宅基地、自留地、自留山等集体所有的土地使用权,但法律规定可以抵押的除外; (2) the right to use such collectively-owned land as cultivated land, house sites, land and hilly land allotted for private use, etc, except for those mortgagable as prescribed by any law;

(三) 学校、幼儿园、医院等以公益为目的的事业单位、社会团体的教育设施、医疗卫生设施和其他社会公益设施; (3) educational, medical, healthy and other public welfare facilities of such institutions and social groups with the aim of benefiting the public as schools, kindergartens, hospitals, etc;

(四) 所有权、使用权不明或者有争议的财产; (4) properties with unclear or controversial ownership or use rights;

(五) 依法被查封、扣押、监管的财产; (5) properties legally confiscated, seized or controlled; or

(六) 法律、行政法规规定不得抵押的其他财产。 (6) other properties that cannot be mortgaged as prescribed by any law or administrative regulation.

第一百八十五条 设立抵押权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立抵押合同。 Article 185 For establishing a mortgage right, the parties concerned shall enter into a written mortgage contract.

抵押合同一般包括下列条款: In general, a mortgage contract shall contain the items as follows:

(一) 被担保债权的种类和数额; (1) the variety and sum of the secured obligee’s rights;

(二) 债务人履行债务的期限; (2) the time limit to pay debts by the obligor;

(三) 抵押财产的名称、数量、质量、状况、所在地、所有权归属或者使用权归属; (3) the name, amount, quality, situation, [], attribution of ownership or use right of the mortgaged property; and

(四) 担保的范围。 (4) the security scope.

第一百八十六条 抵押权人在债务履行期届满前,不得与抵押人约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产归债权人所有。 Article 186 The mortgagee and the mortgagor may, prior to the expiration of the time limit for paying debts, not stipulate that the ownership of the mortgaged property will attributed to the obligee when the obligor fails to pay its due debts.

第一百八十七条 以本法第一百八十条第一款第一项至第三项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的建筑物抵押的,应当办理抵押登记。抵押权自登记时设立。 Article 187 In case properties as provided for in Items (1), (2) and (3) of Paragraph 1 of Article 180 in the present Law or a building under construction in Item (5) are mortgaged, the mortgage registration shall be gone through, and such mortgage right shall be established as of the date of registration.

第一百八十八条 以本法第一百八十条第一款第四项、第六项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的船舶、航空器抵押的,抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 188 In case properties as provided for in Items (4) or (6) of Paragraph 1 of Article 180 of the present Law or a vessel or aircraft under construction as provided for in Item (5) are mortgaged, the mortgage right shall be established since the mortgage contract comes into effect; without the registration, the mortgage right may not challenge any third party with good faith.

第一百八十九条 企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者以本法第一百八十一条规定的动产抵押的,应当向抵押人住所地的工商行政管理部门办理登记。抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 189 As regards the mortgage of the chattels prescribed in Article 181 of the present Law provided by an enterprise, individual industrial and commercial household or agricultural production operator, registration shall be handled by the administrative department for industry and commerce at the locality of the mortgagor. The mortgage right shall be established since the mortgage contract comes into effect; without the registration, such mortgage right may not challenge any third party with good faith.

依照本法第一百八十一条规定抵押的,不得对抗正常经营活动中已支付合理价款并取得抵押财产的买受人。 The mortgage as provided for in Article 181 of the present Law may not challenge the buyer which has paid a reasonable price and obtained the mortgaged property in normal business operations.

第一百九十条 订立抵押合同前抵押财产已出租的,原租赁关系不受该抵押权的影响。抵押权设立后抵押财产出租的,该租赁关系不得对抗已登记的抵押权。 Article 190 Where the mortgaged property has been leased prior to the entering into of the mortgage contract, the original leasehold relations may not be impacted by the mortgage right. Where it is leased after the establishment of the mortgage right, the leasehold relation may be challenge the registered mortgage right.

第一百九十一条 抵押期间,抵押人经抵押权人同意转让抵押财产的,应当将转让所得的价款向抵押权人提前清偿债务或者提存。转让的价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。 Article 191 Where a mortgagor alienates, upon consent of the mortgagee, the mortgaged property during the mortgage term, the money generated from such alienation shall be used to pay off debts to the mortgagee in advance or be submitted to a competent authority for keeping. The value exceeding the obligee’s rights shall be attributed to the mortgagor, and the gap shall be paid off by the obligor.

抵押期间,抵押人未经抵押权人同意,不得转让抵押财产,但受让人代为清偿债务消灭抵押权的除外。 Without the mortgagee’s consent, a mortgagor may not alienate the mortgaged property during the mortgage term,, unless the transferee pays off the debts on behalf of the mortgagor so as to terminate the mortgage right.

第一百九十二条 抵押权不得与债权分离而单独转让或者作为其他债权的担保。债权转让的,担保该债权的抵押权一并转让,但法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。 Article 192 The mortgage right may not be alienated alone, or be used as a security for other obligee’s rights by departing from the obligee’s rights. Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law or is otherwise stipulated by the parties concerned, when the obligee’s rights are alienated, the mortgage right thereof shall be alienated concurrently.

第一百九十三条 抵押人的行为足以使抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权要求抵押人停止其行为。抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权要求恢复抵押财产的价值,或者提供与减少的价值相应的担保。抵押人不恢复抵押财产的价值也不提供担保的,抵押权人有权要求债务人提前清偿债务。 Article 193 Where any act of the mortgagor may sufficiently cause the reduction of the value of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee has the right to require the mortgagor to cease such act. Where the value of the mortgaged property has been lowered, the mortgagee has the right to require the mortgagor to recover the value, or provide a security equal to the reduced value. Where the mortgagor neither recovers the value nor provides any security, the mortgagee has the right to require the obligor to pay off the debts in advance.

第一百九十四条 抵押权人可以放弃抵押权或者抵押权的顺位。抵押权人与抵押人可以协议变更抵押权顺位以及被担保的债权数额等内容,但抵押权的变更,未经其他抵押权人书面同意,不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。 Article 194 A mortgagee may abandon the mortgage right or the sequence thereof. A mortgagee and a mortgagor may, through negotiations, alter the sequence of the mortgage right or the amount of secured obligee’s rights, etc., however, such alteration may not produce unfavorable influences on any other mortgagee without the written consent thereof.

债务人以自己的财产设定抵押,抵押权人放弃该抵押权、抵押权顺位或者变更抵押权的,其他担保人在抵押权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。 Where an obligor creates the mortgage by its/his own properties, and the mortgagee abandons the mortgage right or the sequence thereof or alter such mortgage right, other security providers shall, within the scope for which the said mortgagee has lost the right to seek preferred payments, be exempted from the security liability, unless any of other security providers promises to provide the security all the same.

第一百九十五条 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人可以与抵押人协议以抵押财产折价或者以拍卖、变卖该抵押财产所得的价款优先受偿。协议损害其他债权人利益的,其他债权人可以在知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内请求人民法院撤销该协议。 Article 195 When the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the right to mortgage arises, the mortgagee may, upon negotiation with the mortgagor, convert the mortgaged property into money or seek preferred payments from the money generated from the auction or sale of the mortgaged property. Where the said agreement has injured the interests of any other obligee, the obligee may, within one year after he/it has known or should know the cause for cancellation, require the people’s court to cancel such agreement.

抵押权人与抵押人未就抵押权实现方式达成协议的,抵押权人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖抵押财产。 Where no agreement on the means of realizing the mortgage right is achieved between the mortgagee and the mortgagor, the mortgagee may require the people’s court to auction or sell off the mortgaged property.

抵押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。 When converting into money or selling off the mortgaged property, its marker price shall be referred to.

第一百九十六条 依照本法第一百八十一条规定设定抵押的,抵押财产自下列情形之一发生时确定: Article 196 As regards the mortgage created in accordance with Article 181 of the present Law, the mortgaged property shall be determined when any of the following circumstances arises:

(一) 债务履行期届满,债权未实现; (1) Upon expiration of the time limit for paying debts, the obligee’s rights have not been realized;

(二) 抵押人被宣告破产或者被撤销; (2) The mortgagor has been declared bankrupt or has been canceled;

(三) 当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形; (3) Other circumstances as stipulated by the parties concerned occurs for realizing the mortgage right; or

(四) 严重影响债权实现的其他情形。 (4) Any other circumstance seriously impacting the realization of obligee’s rights.

第一百九十七条 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,致使抵押财产被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起抵押权人有权收取该抵押财产的天然孳息或者法定孳息,但抵押权人未通知应当清偿法定孳息的义务人的除外。 Article 197 When the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage right arises, and the mortgaged property is thus seized by the people’s court in accordance with law, the mortgagee has the right to collect natural or statutory fruits of the mortgaged property as of the date of seizure, unless the mortgagee has failed to inform the subject liable to pay off statutory fruits.

前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。 As regards the “fruits” as referred to in the preceding paragraph, they shall be firstly used for paying the collection expenses thereof.

第一百九十八条 抵押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。 Article 198 The value exceeding the obligee’s rights shall be attributed to the mortgagor, and the gap shall be paid off by the obligor, after the mortgaged property has been converted into money, auctioned or sold off.

第一百九十九条 同一财产向两个以上债权人抵押的,拍卖、变卖抵押财产所得的价款依照下列规定清偿: Article 199 In case a same property is mortgaged to two or more obligees concurrently, the money generated from the auction or sale of the mortgaged property shall be used for paying debts in light of the prescriptions as follows:

(一) 抵押权已登记的,按照登记的先后顺序清偿;顺序相同的,按照债权比例清偿; (1) In case all the mortgage rights to have been registered, the payments shall be made according to the registration sequence; and where the sequence is the same, the payments shall be made on the basis of the proportion of obligee’s rights;

(二) 抵押权已登记的先于未登记的受偿; (2) The registered mortgage right shall be cleared off prior to the unregistered one; and

(三) 抵押权未登记的,按照债权比例清偿。 (3) In case no mortgage right has been registered, the payments shall be made on basis of the proportion of obligee’s rights.

第二百条 建设用地使用权抵押后,该土地上新增的建筑物不属于抵押财产。该建设用地使用权实现抵押权时,应当将该土地上新增的建筑物与建设用地使用权一并处分,但新增建筑物所得的价款,抵押权人无权优先受偿。 Article 200 The buildings newly constructed on the land after the mortgage of the right to use construction land may not belong to the mortgaged properties. Such newly-constructed buildings can be disposed of together with the disposal of the aforesaid right to use construction land so as to realize the mortgage right, however, the mortgagee has no right to seek preferred payments from the money generated from the disposal of these newly-constructed buildings.

第二百零一条 依照本法第一百八十条第一款第三项规定的土地承包经营权抵押的,或者依照本法第一百八十三条规定以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押的,实现抵押权后,未经法定程序,不得改变土地所有权的性质和土地用途。 Article 201 As regards the mortgage of the right to the contracted management of land as provided for in Item (3) of Paragraph 1 of Article 180 of the present Law or the right to use construction land occupied by the plant or any other building of a township or village enterprise as prescribed in Article 183 of the present Law, after such mortgage right is realized, without completing the statutory procedures, the nature of land ownership or land use may not be altered.

第二百零二条 抵押权人应当在主债权诉讼时效期间行使抵押权;未行使的,人民法院不予保护。 Article 202 A mortgagee shall, within the limitation of action for the principal obligee’s rights, exercise the mortgage right, otherwise, such mortgage right will not be protected by the people’s court.

第二节 最高额抵押权 Section 1I Mortgage Right at Maximum Amount

第二百零三条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人对一定期间内将要连续发生的债权提供担保财产的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人有权在最高债权额限度内就该担保财产优先受偿。 Article 203 For ensuring the payment of debts, an obligor or third party may provide mortgage security to the obligee for the obligee’s rights that will continuously happen within a certain term, and when the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage right happens, the mortgagee has the right to seek preferred payments from the security properties within the maximum amount of obligee’s rights.

最高额抵押权设立前已经存在的债权,经当事人同意,可以转入最高额抵押担保的债权范围。 The obligee’s rights existing prior to the establishment of the mortgage right at maximum amount may, upon the consent of the parties concerned, be incorporated into the scope of obligee’s rights under the mortgage security at maximum amount.

第二百零四条 最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,部分债权转让的,最高额抵押权不得转让,但当事人另有约定的除外。 Article 204 Unless it is otherwise stipulated by the parties concerned, in case part of obligee’s rights are transferred prior to the establishment of the mortgage security at maximum amount, the mortgage right at maximum amount may not be transferred.

第二百零五条 最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,抵押权人与抵押人可以通过协议变更债权确定的期间、债权范围以及最高债权额,但变更的内容不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。 Article 205 Prior to the determination of the obligee’s rights under the mortgage security at maximum amount, the mortgagee and the mortgagor may, upon agreement, alter the term for the determination of the obligee’s rights, the scope of obligee’s rights or the maximum amount of obligee’s rights, however, such alteration may not cause any unfavorable influence to any other mortgagee.

第二百零六条 有下列情形之一的,抵押权人的债权确定: Article 206 The mortgagee’s obligee’s rights shall be determined, if any of the following circumstances occurs,:

(一) 约定的债权确定期间届满; (1) The stipulated term for the determination of the obligee’s rights expires;

(二) 没有约定债权确定期间或者约定不明确,抵押权人或者抵押人自最高额抵押权设立之日起满二年后请求确定债权; (2) In case there is no stipulation on such term or the related stipulations are not explicit, and where the mortgagee or the mortgagor requires determine the obligee’s rights after two years as of the date for the establishment of the mortgage right at maximum amount;

(三) 新的债权不可能发生; (3) no new obligee’s right may happen;

(四) 抵押财产被查封、扣押; (4) The mortgaged property is sealed up or seized;

(五) 债务人、抵押人被宣告破产或者被撤销; (5) The obligor or the mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is revoked; or

(六) 法律规定债权确定的其他情形。 (6) Any other circumstance as prescribed by any other law for determining the obligee’s rights arises.

第二百零七条 最高额抵押权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节一般抵押权的规定。 Article 207 The mortgage right at maximum amount shall be governed by, in addition to the provisions in this Section, the provisions on general mortgage right as provided for in Section 1 of this Chapter.

第十七章 质权 Chapter XVII Pledge Right

第一节 动产质权 Section 1 Chattel Pledge

第二百零八条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人将其动产出质给债权人占有的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,债权人有权就该动产优先受偿。 Article 208 For the security of the payment of debts,an obligor or a third party may pledge his (its) chattels to the obligee for occupation, and when the obligor fails to pay due debts or any circumstance for realizing the pledge right as stipulated by the parties happens, the obligee has the right to seek preferred payments from the pledged chattels.

前款规定的债务人或者第三人为出质人,债权人为质权人,交付的动产为质押财产。 The “debtor” or “third party” as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the pledger, the “obligee” shall be the pledgee, and the “chattels” as delivered shall be the pledged property.

第二百零九条 法律、行政法规禁止转让的动产不得出质。 Article 209 The chattels,which are forbidden from being pledged by any law or administrative regulation, may not be pledged.

第二百一十条 设立质权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立质权合同。 Article 210 For establishing the pledge right, the parties concerned shall enter into a contract on pledge right in written form.

质权合同一般包括下列条款: In general, a contract on pledge right shall contain the following items:

(一) 被担保债权的种类和数额; (1) the variety and amount of the principal obligee’s rights;

(二) 债务人履行债务的期限; (2) the time limit for the obligor to pay off debts;

(三) 质押财产的名称、数量、质量、状况; (3) the name, amount, quality and condition of the pledge;

(四) 担保的范围; (4) the scope of security; and

(五) 质押财产交付的时间。 (5) the time for the deliver of pledged properties.

第二百一十一条 质权人在债务履行期届满前,不得与出质人约定债务人不履行到期债务时质押财产归债权人所有。 Article 211 The pledgee and the pledger may not, prior to the time limit for paying debts expires, stipulate that the ownership of pledged properties be attributed to the obligee when the obligor fails to pay due debts.

第二百一十二条 质权自出质人交付质押财产时设立。 Article 212 The pledge right shall be established after the pledgee has delivered the pledged properties.

第二百一十三条 质权人有权收取质押财产的孳息,但合同另有约定的除外。 Article 213 Unless it is otherwise stipulated in the contract, a pledgee has the right to obtain the fruits of the pledged properties.

前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。 The “fruits” as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be firstly used for paying the expenses for collecting the fruits.

第二百一十四条 质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意,擅自使用、处分质押财产,给出质人造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。 Article 214 Where a pledgee, without consent of the pledger, illegally uses or disposes of the pledged properties within the duration of the pledge right, and thus damages are caused to the pledger, he/it shall make compensations.

第二百一十五条 质权人负有妥善保管质押财产的义务;因保管不善致使质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。 Article 215 A pledgee shall be obliged to properly keep pledged properties; and where pledged properties are damaged or lost by virtue of improper keeping, the pledgee shall make compensations.

质权人的行为可能使质押财产毁损、灭失的,出质人可以要求质权人将质押财产提存,或者要求提前清偿债务并返还质押财产。 Where pledged properties may be damaged or lost by act of the pledgee, the pledger may ask for the pledgee to submit them to a competent authority for keeping or require pay debts in advance and take back them.

第二百一十六条 因不能归责于质权人的事由可能使质押财产毁损或者价值明显减少,足以危害质权人权利的,质权人有权要求出质人提供相应的担保;出质人不提供的,质权人可以拍卖、变卖质押财产,并与出质人通过协议将拍卖、变卖所得的价款提前清偿债务或者提存。 Article 216 Where any cause not attributable to t the pledge’ fault may result in the destruction of the pledged properties or an obvious decrease of the value of the pledge, and which is sufficient to damage the pledgee’s rights, the pledgee has the right to require the pledger to provide corresponding security. Where the pledger refuses to do so, the pledgee may auction or sell off the pledged properties, and may, by negotiating with the pledger, seek preferred payments for the obligee’s rights in advance with the money generated from such auction or sell-off, or submit the said money to a competent authority for keeping.

第二百一十七条 质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意转质,造成质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当向出质人承担赔偿责任。 Article 217 Where a pledgee transfers, without consent of the pledger, the pledge within the duration of the pledge right, and thus destroy or loss are caused to the pledged properties, he/it shall make compensations to the pledger.

第二百一十八条 质权人可以放弃质权。债务人以自己的财产出质,质权人放弃该质权的,其他担保人在质权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。 Article 218 A pledgee may abandon the pledge right. Where an obligor provide the pledge right by his/its own properties, and the pledgee abandons the pledge right, unless any of other security providers promises to provide the security all the same, other security providers’ security liability will be exempted within the scope for which the pledgee has lost the right to seek preferred payments.

第二百一十九条 债务人履行债务或者出质人提前清偿所担保的债权的,质权人应当返还质押财产。 Article 219 Where the obligor has paid off the debts or the pledger has fulfilled the secured obligee’s rights in advance, the pledgee shall return the pledged properties.

债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,质权人可以与出质人协议以质押财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖质押财产所得的价款优先受偿。 Where an obligor fails to pay off its due debts or any circumstance for realizing the pledge right as stipulated by the parties concerned happens, the pledgee may, by negotiating with the pledger, convert the pledge into money or seek preferred payments from the money generated from the auction or sell-off of the pledged properties.

质押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。 When converting the pledged properties into money or selling off them, their market price shall be referred to.

第二百二十条 出质人可以请求质权人在债务履行期届满后及时行使质权;质权人不行使的,出质人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖质押财产。 Article 220 A pledger may, upon expiration of the time limit for paying debts, request the pledgee to exercise the pledge right in a timely manner; if the pledgee fails to do so, the pledger may ask for the people’s court to auction or sell off the pledged properties.

出质人请求质权人及时行使质权,因质权人怠于行使权利造成损害的,由质权人承担赔偿责任。 Where a pledger has requested the pledgee to exercise the pledge right in a timely manner, but the pledgee is lazy to do so and thus damages are caused, the pledgee shall make compensations.

第二百二十一条 质押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归出质人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。 Article 221 After pledged properties are converted into money, auctioned or sold off, the value exceeding the obligee’s rights shall be attributed to the pledger, and the gap shall be paid off by the obligor.

第二百二十二条 出质人与质权人可以协议设立最高额质权。 Article 222 The pledger and the pledgee may, upon negotiation, set up the pledge right of maximum amount.

最高额质权除适用本节有关规定外,参照本法第十六章第二节最高额抵押权的规定。 The pledge right of maximum amount shall be governed by, in addition to the related provisions in this Section, the provisions on mortgage right at maximum amount prescribed in Section 1I of Chapter 16 of the present Law by reference.

第二节 权利质权 Section 1I Right Pledge

第二百二十三条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列权利可以出质: Article 223 Pledge may be established on any of the following rights which an obligor or third party has the right to dispose of:

(一) 汇票、支票、本票; (1) money orders, checks, and cashier’s checks;

(二) 债券、存款单; (2) bonds and deposit receipts;

(三) 仓单、提单; (3) warehouse receipts and lading bills;

(四) 可以转让的基金份额、股权; (4) transferable fund units and stock rights;

(五) 可以转让的注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权; (5) such transferable property rights in intellectual property as exclusive trademark rights, patent rights, copyrights, etc;

(六) 应收账款; (6) account receivables; or

(七) 法律、行政法规规定可以出质的其他财产权利。 (7) other property rights that can be pledged as prescribed by any law or administrative regulation.

第二百二十四条 以汇票、支票、本票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。质权自权利凭证交付质权人时设立;没有权利凭证的,质权自有关部门办理出质登记时设立。 Article 224 The parties concerned shall conclude a written contract for the pledge of a money order, check, cashier’s check, securities, deposit receipt, warehouse receipt or bill of lading. The pledge right shall be established after the deliver of the title certificate of the pledge to the pledgee. In case there is no title certificate, the pledge right shall be established after the related department has handled the registration of the pledge.

第二百二十五条 汇票、支票、本票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单的兑现日期或者提货日期先于主债权到期的,质权人可以兑现或者提货,并与出质人协议将兑现的价款或者提取的货物提前清偿债务或者提存。 Article 225 The pledgee may make redemption or pick up the goods, and may, by negotiating with the pledger, seek preferred payments in advance with the redeemed money or the picked up goods, or submit the said money or goods to a competent authority for keeping,in case the date of redemption or delivery of the money order, check, cashier’s check, bonds, deposit receipt, warehouse receipt or lading bill of is prior to the deadline of principal obligee’s rights.

第二百二十六条 以基金份额、股权出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。以基金份额、证券登记结算机构登记的股权出质的,质权自证券登记结算机构办理出质登记时设立;以其他股权出质的,质权自工商行政管理部门办理出质登记时设立。 Article 226 The parties concerned shall enter into a written contract for the pledge of fund units or stock rights. As regards the pledge of fund units or the stock rights that are registered in the securities depository and clearing institution, the pledge right shall be established after the securities depository and clearing institution has handled the registration of the pledge. As regards the pledge of other stock rights, the pledge right shall be established after the administrations for industry and commerce has handled the registration of the pledge.

基金份额、股权出质后,不得转让,但经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让基金份额、股权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。 After the fund units or stock rights have been pledged, unless it is otherwise agreed to by the pledger and the pledgee upon negotiations, they may not be alienated. As regards the money incurred from the transfer of fund units or stock rights, the pledger shall fulfill the obligee’s rights to the pledgee in advance with it, or submit it to a competent authority for keeping.

第二百二十七条 以注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。质权自有关主管部门办理出质登记时设立。 Article 227 As regards the pledge such property rights in the intellectual property as registered trademark rights, patent rights, copyrights,etc, the parties concerned shall enter into a written contract, and the pledge right shall be established after the related competent authority has handled the registration of the pledge.

知识产权中的财产权出质后,出质人不得转让或者许可他人使用,但经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让或者许可他人使用出质的知识产权中的财产权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。 After the property rights in the intellectual property have been pledged, unless it is otherwise agreed to between the pledger and the pledgee upon negotiations, the pledger may not alienate the pledge or permit anyone else to use it. As regards the money incurred from the alienation of the pledged intellectual property or the permission of anyone else to use it, the pledger shall use it to fulfill the obligee’s rights in advance, or submit it to a competent authority for keeping.

第二百二十八条 以应收账款出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。质权自信贷征信机构办理出质登记时设立。 Article 228 As regards the pledge of receivables, the parties concerned shall enter into a written contract, and the pledge right shall be established after the related credit rating institution has handled the registration of the pledge.

应收账款出质后,不得转让,但经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让应收账款所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。 After the receivables have been pledged, unless it is otherwise agreed on by the pledger and the pledgee upon negotiations, the pledger may not alienate the pledged receivables. As regards money incurred form the alienation of accounts receivable, the pledger shall use it to fulfill the obligee’s rights in advance, or submit it to a competent authority for keeping.

第二百二十九条 权利质权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节动产质权的规定。 Article 229 The pledge of rights shall be governed by, in addition to the provisions prescribed in this Section, the provisions in Section 1 of this Chapter on the pledge of chattels.

第十八章 留置权 Chapter XVIII Lien

第二百三十条 债务人不履行到期债务,债权人可以留置已经合法占有的债务人的动产,并有权就该动产优先受偿。 Article 230 Where an obligor fails to pay off its due debts, the obligee may take lien of the chattels that are owned by the obligor and lawfully occupied by the obligee, and has the right to seek preferred payments from such chattels.

前款规定的债权人为留置权人,占有的动产为留置财产。 The “obligee” as referred to in the preceding Paragraph shall be the lienor, and the occupied chattels shall be the property under lien.

第二百三十一条 债权人留置的动产,应当与债权属于同一法律关系,但企业之间留置的除外。 Article 231 The chattels taken as lien by the obligee and the obligee’s rights shall fall into a same legal relationship, except for the lien between enterprises.

第二百三十二条 法律规定或者当事人约定不得留置的动产,不得留置。 Article 232 As regards chattels of which no lien may be taken as prescribed by law or stipulated by the parties concerned, lien may not be taken of them.

第二百三十三条 留置财产为可分物的,留置财产的价值应当相当于债务的金额。 Article 233 Where a property under lien is a divisible object, its value shall be equal to the amount of debts.

第二百三十四条 留置权人负有妥善保管留置财产的义务;因保管不善致使留置财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。 Article 234 A lienor shall assume the obligation to properly keep the property under lien, and shall make compensations in case the property under lien is damaged or lost by virtue of improper safekeeping.

第二百三十五条 留置权人有权收取留置财产的孳息。 Article 235 A lienor has the right to obtain the fruits generated from the property under lien.

前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。 The “fruits” as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be firstly used for the payments of the expenses for collecting the fruits.

第二百三十六条 留置权人与债务人应当约定留置财产后的债务履行期间;没有约定或者约定不明确的,留置权人应当给债务人两个月以上履行债务的期间,但鲜活易腐等不易保管的动产除外。债务人逾期未履行的,留置权人可以与债务人协议以留置财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖留置财产所得的价款优先受偿。 Article 236 A lienor shall, after the property is taken as lien, stipulate with the obligor the term for the fulfillment of the obligee’s rights; and in caseof no or unclear stipulation, two months or more shall be given to the obligor for fulfilling the obligee’s rights, except for such chattels that are not easy to be kept as fresh goods, perishable goods, etc.. Where the obligor fails to fulfill within the time limit, the lienor may convert the property under lien into money by negotiating with the obligor, or seek preferred payments from the money generated from the auction or sell-off the property under lien.

留置财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。 When the property under lien is converted into money or sold off, its market price should be referred to.

第二百三十七条 债务人可以请求留置权人在债务履行期届满后行使留置权;留置权人不行使的,债务人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖留置财产。 Article 237 An obligor may, upon expiration of the time limit for fulfilling the obligee’s rights, require the lienor to exercise the lien; and where the lienor fails to do so, the obligor may ask for the people’s court to auction or sell off the property under lien.

第二百三十八条 留置财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归债务人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。 Article 238 The obligor shall after the property under lien is converted into money, auctioned or sold off, enjoy the ownership of the value exceeding the obligee’s rights or make up shall be attributed to the gap.

第二百三十九条 同一动产上已设立抵押权或者质权,该动产又被留置的,留置权人优先受偿。 Article 239 The lienor has the right to seek preferred payments in case the right to mortgage or the right of pledge has been established on a chattel before it is taken as lien.

第二百四十条 留置权人对留置财产丧失占有或者留置权人接受债务人另行提供担保的,留置权消灭。 Article 240 The lien shall perish in case a lienor losses the possession of the property under lien or accepts other security separately provided by the obligor.

第五编 占有 Part V Possession

第十九章 占有 Chapter XIX Possession

第二百四十一条 基于合同关系等产生的占有,有关不动产或者动产的使用、收益、违约责任等,按照合同约定;合同没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照有关法律规定。 Article 241 In case the possession occurs on the basis of a contractual relationship, the related stipulations in the contract shall be apply to the use, proceedings and default liability of the realty or chattel concerned; and the relevant legal provisions shall apply if there is no such stipulation in the contract or the stipulations are not clear,.

第二百四十二条 占有人因使用占有的不动产或者动产,致使该不动产或者动产受到损害的,恶意占有人应当承担赔偿责任。 Article 242 Where a possessor causes infringes to the realty or chattel under his (its) possession when using them, it/he shall make compensations if being malicious.

第二百四十三条 不动产或者动产被占有人占有的,权利人可以请求返还原物及其孳息,但应当支付善意占有人因维护该不动产或者动产支出的必要费用。 Article 243 Where a realty or chattel is possessed by a possessor, the holder may ask for the return of original object and fruits thereof, but necessary expenses for the maintenance of this realty or chattel paid by the bone fide possessor shall be paid possessor l.

第二百四十四条 占有的不动产或者动产毁损、灭失,该不动产或者动产的权利人请求赔偿的,占有人应当将因毁损、灭失取得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等返还给权利人;权利人的损害未得到足够弥补的,恶意占有人还应当赔偿损失。 Article 244 Where a realty or chattel under possession is damaged or lost, the possessor shall return the insurance money, damages or indemnities for the said destruction or loss to the holder if the holder requires compensations; and a malicious possessor shall make compensations in case the impairment to the holder has not been sufficiently made up.

第二百四十五条 占有的不动产或者动产被侵占的,占有人有权请求返还原物;对妨害占有的行为,占有人有权请求排除妨害或者消除危险;因侵占或者妨害造成损害的,占有人有权请求损害赔偿。 Article 245 Where a realty or chattel under possession is encroached on, the possessor has the right to require the return of the original object; where any act impairs the possession, the possessor has the right to request the termination of impairment or danger; and where any damage is caused by virtue of encroachment or interference, the possessor has the right to require compensations.

占有人返还原物的请求权,自侵占发生之日起一年内未行使的,该请求权消灭。 The claim of a possessor for returning the original object shall perish, if the possessor fails to exercise it within one year as of the date of encroachment.

附 则 Supplementary Rules

第二百四十六条 法律、行政法规对不动产统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法作出规定前,地方性法规可以依照本法有关规定作出规定。 Article 246 A local regulation may, before any law or administrative regulation prescribes the scope, organ and measures for uniform registration of realties, provide for related matters in accordance with the related provisions in the present Law.

第二百四十七条 本法自2007年10月1日起施行。 Article 247 The present Law shall enter into force as of October 1, 2007.